Prenatal tests are tests done during pregnancy
to check a woman's health and her baby's. They can detect conditions that can put
a baby at risk for problems like preterm
birth if they're not treated. Tests also can help health care providers find things
like a birth defect or a chromosomal abnormality.
Some prenatal tests are screening tests that can only reveal the
possibility of a problem. Other prenatal tests are diagnostic tests
that can accurately find whether a fetus has a specific problem. A screening test
sometimes is followed by a diagnostic test.
If your doctor recommends a test, ask about its risks and benefits. Most parents
find that prenatal tests offer them peace of mind while helping to prepare them for
their baby's arrival. But it's your choice to accept or decline a test.
What Tests Are Done at the Prenatal First Visit?
One of the goals of your first visit to the obstetrician's office is to confirm
your pregnancy and see whether you or your baby could be at risk for any health problems.
The doctor will do a full physical exam, which may include a weight assessment,
blood pressure check, and breast and pelvic examination. If you're due for your routine
cervical test (Pap smear), the doctor will do it during the pelvic exam. This test
detects changes in cervical cells that could lead to cancer. During the pelvic exam,
your doctor also will check for sexually
transmitted diseases (STDs) like chlamydia
To confirm your pregnancy, you may have a urine pregnancy test, which checks for
hCG, a hormone and pregnancy indicator. Your urine (pee) also is tested for protein,
sugar, and signs of infection. When your pregnancy is confirmed, your due date is
calculated based on the date of your last menstrual cycle (period). Sometimes an ultrasound
exam will help to figure this out.
A blood test will check for things like:
your blood type and Rh factor.
If your blood is Rh negative and your partner's is Rh positive, you may develop antibodies
that prove dangerous to your fetus. This can be prevented through an injection given
around the 28th week of pregnancy.
After the first visit, you can expect to get your urine tested and your weight
and blood pressure checked at every (or almost every) visit until you deliver. These
tests can find problems such as gestational
diabetes and preeclampsia (dangerously high blood pressure).
During your first trimester, you'll be offered more tests depending on your age,
health, family medical history, and other things. These can include:
trimester screening: This test includes a blood test and an ultrasound
exam. It helps to determine whether the fetus is at risk for a chromosomal abnormality
(such as Down syndrome) or birth defects (such as heart problems).
This safe and painless test uses sound waves to make images that show the baby's shape
and position. It can be done early in the first trimester to date the pregnancy or
during weeks 11–14 as part of the first trimester screening. Women with high-risk
pregnancies might have multiple ultrasounds during their first trimester.
villus sampling (CVS): This test checks cells from the placenta to see
if they have a chromosomal abnormality (such as Down syndrome). It can be done from
weeks 10 to 13, and can tell for sure if a baby will be born with a specific chromosomal
Cell-free DNA testing: This blood test checks for fetal DNA in
the mother's blood. It's done to see whether the fetus is at risk for a chromosomal
disorder, and can be done from 10 weeks on. It is not a diagnostic test. If the results
are abnormal, another test must confirm or rule out the diagnosis. It's usually offered
to pregnant women at higher risk because they're older or have had a baby with a chromosomal
What Other Tests Might Be Offered?
Health care providers might order other tests during a woman's pregnancy based
on such things as her (and her partner's) personal medical history and risk factors.
It's important to speak with a genetic
counselor if your baby is at risk for hereditary conditions.
Screening or diagnostic tests offered include tests for: