asymmetric growth (one side grows faster than the other, such as the arms and
legs or head)
CLOVES syndrome symptoms vary widely in combination and severity. Some children
have mild symptoms, while others can have serious, life-threatening problems.
What Causes CLOVES Syndrome?
CLOVES is caused by a genetic mutation (an error in a person's genes). Sometimes,
like with CLOVES, genes can mutate (change) on their own, with no known reason. It
is not hereditary (passed down by parents to their children).
How Is CLOVES Syndrome Diagnosed?
CLOVES is typically diagnosed at birth based on a baby's physical problems. Careful
examination and advanced imaging tests (MRI,
CT scan, ultrasound) might be needed to confirm a CLOVES diagnosis. Fetal diagnosis
(while a baby is still in the womb) is sometimes possible. But because CLOVES is so
rare, it's still unknown to many health care providers.
CLOVES syndrome can cause problems that are similar to those of other rare disorders.
Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, Proteus syndrome, and hemihypertrophy also cause blood
vessel overgrowth and abnormalities in certain body areas. To diagnose CLOVES, doctors
will look for the syndrome's combination of vascular, skin, and spinal abnormalities.
How Is CLOVES Syndrome Treated?
There is no cure for CLOVES, but a team of health care specialists can help families
manage the conditions and symptoms it causes. These specialists can include a vascular
interventional radiologist, a general surgeon, a hematologist, a genetics doctor,
a pathologist, a radiologist, a plastic surgeon, an orthopedic specialist, a neurosurgeon,
Treatments for CLOVES include:
sclerotherapy: to shrink the vascular malformations and lymphatic
interventional radiology procedures: to shrink tumors or repair
lymph and blood vessel malformations
embolization: to block blood vessels or vascular channels of
debulking surgery: to remove some tissue overgrowth, which will
maximize function for the child and decrease deformity
surgery: general, urology, gastroenterology, thoracic
orthopedic procedures: to correct foot, hand, spine, bone, and
neurosurgery: to repair a tethered spinal cord, or spinal mass
and craniofacial anomalies
Early diagnosis is very important for kids with CLOVES. Evaluation and treatment
with a multidisciplinary team specializing in vascular anomalies and vascular malformations
should start as soon as possible to help manage a child's specific symptoms and overall
Research into medicines and other treatments that can help kids with CLOVES is