Type 2 Diabetes: How Is It Treated?enteenshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/T-diabetesType2Treat-enHD-AR1.jpgPeople with type 2 diabetes need to follow a plan to manage their diabetes and stay healthy and active.type 2 diabetes, adult-onset diabetes, diabetes treatment plan, diabetes management plan, healthy diet, meal plans, weight loss, nutrition, exercise, physical activity, sports, treating type 2 diabetes, carbohydrates, blood glucose levels, blood sugar levels, blood glucose meter, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, low blood sugar, high blood sugar, insulin, insulin pump, checking blood sugar levels, alternative treatments for diabetes, health care team, diabetes doctor04/01/200508/27/201808/27/2018Shara R. Bialo, MD08/17/2018b6458cdd-5ad3-4b39-80ba-79625d8b958chttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/treating-type2.html/<p>People with <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/type2.html/">type 2 diabetes</a> need to follow a treatment plan. Also called a <strong>diabetes management plan</strong>, it helps them manage their diabetes and stay healthy and active. Treatment plans are based on a person's individual health needs and the suggestions of the <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/diabetes-team.html/">diabetes health care team</a>.</p> <h3>Diabetes Treatment Basics</h3> <p>The first thing to understand when it comes to treating diabetes is your blood glucose level, which is just what it sounds like &mdash; the amount of glucose in the blood. <strong>Glucose</strong> is a sugar that comes from the foods we eat and also is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the cells of the body, and is carried to them through the blood. Glucose gets into the cells with the help of the hormone <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/insulin.html/">insulin</a>.</p> <p><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/in-diabetes-vd.html/" target="windyWindow" onclick="MM_openBrWindow(this.href,'windyWindow','width=605,height=595,status=no,scrollbars=no,toolbar=no,resizable=yes,location=no'); return false;"><img class="right" title="What Happens in Diabetes?" src="https://kidshealth.org/EN/images/buttons/diabetes-enBT.gif" alt="What Happens in Diabetes?" name="3326-DIABETES_ENPR.GIF" /></a></p> <p>So how do blood glucose levels relate to type 2 diabetes? People with type 2 diabetes don't respond normally to insulin anymore, so glucose stays in the bloodstream and doesn't get into the cells. This causes blood glucose levels to go too high.</p> <p>High blood sugar levels can make teens with type 2 diabetes feel sick, so their treatment plan involves keeping their blood sugar levels within a healthy range while making sure they grow and develop normally. To do that, they need to:</p> <ul> <li>eat a healthy, balanced diet and follow a meal plan</li> <li>get regular exercise</li> <li>take medicines as prescribed</li> <li>check blood sugar levels regularly</li> </ul> <p>The good news is that sticking to the plan can help people feel healthy and avoid diabetes problems later.</p> <h3>Eat a Healthy Diet and Follow a Meal Plan</h3> <p>Eating right and exercising more often is good for everyone. But it's especially important for people with type 2 diabetes. When people put on too much body fat, it's because they're eating more calories than they use each day. The body stores that extra energy in fat cells. Over time, gaining pounds of extra fat can lead to obesity and diseases related to obesity, like type 2 diabetes.</p> <p>Getting to a healthy weight &mdash; even losing just a few pounds of extra body fat &mdash; goes a long way in helping to keep blood sugar levels under control. How do you do it? Eating healthy foods is one thing people with type 2 diabetes can do. They also have to pay attention to the amount of <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/carbs-diabetes.html/">carbohydrates</a> (or carbs) and calories in the foods they eat.</p> <p>Eating certain foods will cause blood sugar levels to go up more than others, which can make controlling blood sugar more difficult for people with diabetes unless insulin and other diabetes medicines are taken at the proper times and doses.</p> <p>The three major nutrients in food are carbs, proteins, and fats. Foods that cause blood sugar levels to go up contain carbohydrates. Foods that contain mostly protein and/or fat don't affect blood sugar levels as much as foods with carbs. But they still contain calories and can cause people to gain too much body fat if they eat too much of them.</p> <p>For people with type 2 diabetes (and everyone else, too), it's best to not eat too many sugary treats or fast foods. They're not really healthy food choices, and they can make them gain too much body fat and get cavities. They also might need to eat smaller amounts of food.</p> <p>A balanced, healthy diet doesn't mean giving up your favorite foods or going on a starvation diet. But you'll probably have to limit junk food and sweets and eat smaller portions of foods if you're overweight.</p> <p>To help you eat right, you and your diabetes health care team will create a written diabetes meal plan. Meal plans usually consist of guidelines for preparing breakfast, lunch, and dinner with scheduled between-meal snacks.</p> <p>The diabetes meal plan won't tell you specific foods to eat, but it will guide you in selecting choices from the basic food groups and help you eat nutritious, balanced meals. Each meal and snack in the plan contains a certain amount of carbs, which works with the types and amount of <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/medicines-diabetes.html/">diabetes medicines</a> you take.</p> <h3>Get Regular Exercise</h3> <p><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/sports-diabetes.html/">Exercise</a> is good for everyone, including people with diabetes. It's also an important part of diabetes treatment because exercise can improve your body's response to insulin, help you lose extra body fat, and get your heart and lungs in good shape.</p> <p>You might be wondering about how exercise will affect your diabetes, but you shouldn't use diabetes as an excuse not to get moving. Most types of exercise are great for people with type 2 diabetes &mdash; from walking the dog or riding a bike to playing team sports. Make it your goal to exercise every day to get the most benefits.</p> <p>You can talk to your diabetes health care team about making any necessary meal or medication adjustments when you exercise. They'll offer specific suggestions to help you get ready for exercise or join a sport and give you written instructions to help you respond to any diabetes problems that may happen during exercise, like <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/blood-sugar-low.html/">hypoglycemia</a> (low blood sugar), or <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/hyperglycemia.html/">hyperglycemia</a> (high blood sugar).</p> <h3>Take Medicines as Prescribed</h3> <p>Several medicines are available for people with type 2 diabetes. They work in different ways to help the body make or respond to insulin better.</p> <p>Sometimes pills for diabetes &mdash; even when combined with diet and exercise &mdash; aren't enough to keep blood sugar levels under control. Some people with type 2 diabetes also have to take insulin. The only way to get insulin into the body now is by injection with a needle or with an insulin pump. If someone tried to take insulin as a pill, the acids and digestive juices in the stomach and intestines would break down the medicine, and it wouldn't work.</p> <p>Getting <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/injection-graphic.html/">insulin injections</a> today is nearly painless, thanks to smaller needles. Insulin pumps (which deliver insulin through a small tube placed just under the skin) cut down on the number of injections needed.</p> <p>Different kinds of insulin are used for different purposes. The types of insulin you use and how you take it each day will depend on what's best for you and your daily schedule.</p> <p>If you take an insulin shot but forget to eat, your blood sugar levels can get too low. So try to avoid skipping meals or snacks. If your parents remind you to eat when you take your insulin, it's probably because they worry about you, not because they're trying to nag you!</p> <p>Your diabetes health care team will teach you how and when to give yourself insulin.</p> <h3>Check Blood Sugar Levels</h3> <p>Checking your blood sugar levels is another part of your diabetes treatment plan. It lets you know how well the other parts of your treatment plan are working, and it's the only way to know how you are doing with your diabetes control on a daily basis.</p> <p>Your care team may recommend that you use a <strong>continuous glucose monitor (CGM)</strong>. A CGM is a wearable device that can measure blood sugar every few minutes around the clock. It's measured by a thread-like sensor inserted under the skin and secured in place. The more frequent CGM blood sugar readings can help you and the care team do an even better job of troubleshooting and adjusting your insulin doses and diabetes management plan to improve blood sugar control.</p> <p>A blood glucose meter or CGM tells you what your blood sugar level is at the moment. Your doctor may also send you for another type of blood sugar test called a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/hba1c.html/"><strong>hemoglobin A1c test</strong></a> (HbA1c for short). It lets you and your care team know how your blood sugar levels have been for the few months before the test.</p> <h3>Putting It All Together</h3> <p>Treating and managing diabetes can seem complicated at times. But your diabetes health care team is there for you. Your diabetes management plan should be easy to understand, detailed, and written down for you so that you can refer to it whenever you need to.</p> <p>The good news about type 2 diabetes is that if you do the diabetes treatment steps listed above, your blood sugar levels can return to a healthier range. For some people with type 2 diabetes, that can mean not even needing to take diabetes medicines anymore.</p> <p>You also might hear about alternative treatments for diabetes, such as herbal remedies and vitamin or mineral supplements. These practices can be risky, especially when people stop following the treatment plan their doctor has given them. So get the facts by talking to your diabetes health care team. They keep track of the latest research developments, and will introduce new products as they become available.</p>Diabetes tipo 2: ¿Cuál es el tratamiento?Las personas que padecen diabetes tipo 2 deben seguir un tipo de plan diferente. Un plan de tratamiento –un plan para manejar la diabetes– ayuda a las personas a controlar su diabetes, así como a mantenerse sanas y activas. Los planes de tratamiento están basados en las necesidades que tiene cada persona en relación con su salud y en las sugerencias del equipo que está tratando su diabetes.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/teens/treat-type2-esp.html/a1010a53-24cc-4b63-aea8-2959004cccb2
Carbohydrates and DiabetesIf you have diabetes, your doctor may have recommended keeping track of how many carbohydrates (carbs) you eat. But what exactly are carbs and how do they affect your blood sugar?https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/carbs-diabetes.html/bc86697f-835a-4745-99eb-cd7f807b9b7b
Diabetes CenterOur Diabetes Center provides information and advice for teens about treating and living with diabetes.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/center/diabetes-center.html/2de408fd-c6ef-4ca3-a5cf-9a1456fe0f29
Diabetes Control: Why It's ImportantPeople who have diabetes may hear or read a lot about controlling, or managing, the condition. But what is diabetes control and why is it so important?https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/diabetes-control.html/f02a787a-3326-4ffb-bee2-d2c965896f13
Meal Plans and DiabetesPeople with diabetes don't need to be on strict diets, but do need to pay attention to what they eat and when. Crack open the cookbooks and surf to your favorite recipe website because it's time to plan meals that you love!https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/meal-plans-diabetes.html/7fdf67ec-ec8c-491d-8003-1b349fafb4f7
Medicines for DiabetesTaking medicines is a major part of staying healthy if you have diabetes because they help you keep your blood sugar levels under control.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/medicines-diabetes.html/bbb46625-eff9-4291-97bd-a4a9b50a4866
Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated?People with type 1 diabetes need to follow a treatment plan to manage their diabetes and stay healthy and active.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/treating-type1.html/b3770aec-4766-4994-b1ec-4e406892a919
Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?Teens with type 2 diabetes have to pay close attention to what they eat and do.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/type2.html/879b38fb-42b6-4ebe-a3a2-e87557ad20f2
Weight and DiabetesWeight can influence diabetes, and diabetes can influence weight. Managing weight can really make a difference in a person's diabetes management plan.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/weight-diabetes.html/31352c12-f673-471d-b12b-0e81048d7617
What Problems Can Diabetes Cause?Thinking about your diabetes a little bit now — and taking some steps to prevent problems — can make things easier down the road.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/complications.html/a156cd10-f4e7-4416-94c5-0182fc4e0ae5
kh:age-teenThirteenToNineteenkh:age-youngAdultEighteenPluskh:clinicalDesignation-endocrinologykh:genre-articlekh:primaryClinicalDesignation-endocrinologyGrowth, Hormones & Diabetes (for Teens)https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/diseases-conditions/growth/2eed826c-bfea-421c-bf70-f1cf54b09592Diabetes Treatment & Prevention for Teenshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/diabetes-center/treatment/732b47e5-de83-4951-97ce-01bb85d7d7fchttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/buttons/diabetes-enBT.gif