Testicular Cancerenparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/KH_generic_header_04_2.jpgTesticular cancer is uncommon in boys. Most cases are in young and middle-aged men. It responds well to treatment, especially when it’s found early.Testicular cancer , cancer, testicular, testicle cancer, cancer in testicles, boys cancer, types of cancer boys get, chemotherapy, chemo, radiation, self-exam, testicular exam, self-exam, undescended testicle, hydrocele, varicocele, painless lump in the testicle, inguinal orchiectomy, orchiectomy, swollen testicle, different-sized testicles, scrotum pain, heavy scrotum, lump in the balls, 08/19/201908/21/201908/21/2019Jonathan L. Powell, MD08/10/201983424d01-0bb1-4d26-b0e3-cea720c094a7https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/testicular-cancer.html/<h3>What Is Testicular Cancer?</h3> <p><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer.html/">Cancer</a> is when cells in part of the body grow out of control. They crowd out normal, healthy cells, so the body can't work as it should.</p> <p>Cancer that affects a testicle is called testicular (tes-TIK-yuh-lur) cancer. It's uncommon in boys. Most cases are in young and middle-aged men.</p> <p>Testicular cancer responds well to treatment, especially when it's found early.</p> <h3>What Are the Testicles?</h3> <p>The testicles are part of the <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/male-reproductive.html/">male reproductive system</a>. They:</p> <ul> <li>are the pair of egg-shaped organs in the sac (the scrotum) that hangs behind the penis</li> <li>make male hormones, like testosterone , needed for changes during <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/understanding-puberty.html/">puberty</a></li> <li>make sperm, which fertilize a female's egg to start a pregnancy</li> </ul> <h3>Can Boys Get Testicular Cancer?</h3> <p>Testicular cancer usually affects men 20‒34 years old. But in can happen in boys and teens during puberty.</p> <p>Things that can make a boy more likely to get testicular cancer include having:</p> <ul> <li>an <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cryptorchidism.html/">undescended testicle</a> (now or in the past)</li> <li>a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hydrocele.html/">hydrocele</a> (when fluid fills the scrotum)</li> <li>a varicocele (enlargement of the veins in the scrotum)</li> <li>an <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/inguinal-hernias.html/">inguinal hernia</a> (now or in the past)</li> <li>a father or brother with testicular cancer</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hiv.html/">HIV</a></li> </ul> <h3>What Happens in Testicular Cancer?</h3> <p>Testicular cancer can:</p> <ul> <li>spread to other parts of the body</li> <li>damage other body parts as it spreads</li> <li>begin in the testicle (primary testicle cancer), or start elsewhere and spread to the testicle (secondary testicle cancer)</li> </ul> <h3>What Are the Signs &amp; Symptoms of Testicular Cancer?</h3> <p>Symptoms of testicular cancer include:</p> <ul> <li>a painless lump in the testicle</li> <li>a swollen testicle</li> <li>different-sized testicles</li> <li>heaviness in the scrotum</li> <li>pain in the testicle, scrotum, or groin (the area between the belly and thigh)</li> </ul> <h3>What Causes Testicular Cancer?</h3> <p>Doctors don't know what causes all testicular cancers, but they think:</p> <ul class="kh_longline_list"> <li>Some cells left from early pregnancy may grow into cancers.</li> <li>Something in the environment may cause changes that lead to testicular cancer.</li> </ul> <h3>How Is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed?</h3> <p>Testicular cancer is usually diagnosed after a lump is found in the testicle. To find out what is causing the lump, a urologist (doctor specializes in treating genital problems) will:</p> <ul> <li>do an exam</li> <li>order an <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/ultrasound-scrotal.html/">ultrasound</a> to get a closer look at the lump</li> <li>order blood tests that check for tumor markers (proteins made by cancer)</li> <li>do a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/biopsy.html/">biopsy</a> (take a piece of tissue from the tumor to check under a microscope)</li> </ul> <p>The urologist also might order other tests to see if the cancer has spread. These tests may include:</p> <ul> <li>a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/xray-exam-chest.html/">chest X-ray</a></li> <li>an <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/mri.html/">MRI</a> (magnetic resonance imaging)</li> <li>a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cat-scan-abdomen.html/">CT (computerized tomography) scan</a></li> </ul> <h3>How Is Testicular Cancer Treated?</h3> <p>Boys with testicular cancer have a care team to help them get the best treatment. The care team usually includes:</p> <ul> <li>a urologist</li> <li>an oncologist (a doctor who specializes in cancer diagnosis and treatment)</li> <li>a surgeon</li> </ul> <p>Depending on the type of cancer and whether it has spread, doctors may treat testicular cancer with:</p> <ul> <li>surgery: <ul> <li>that removes the cancer without removing the testicle</li> <li>that removes the cancer and the testicle (a total inguinal orchiectomy)</li> <li>that removes lymph nodes</li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/chemotherapy.html/">chemotherapy</a>: treatment with medicines</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/radiation.html/">radiation therapy</a>: treatment with high-energy radiation</li> </ul> <h3>Can People Who Have Had Testicular Cancer Still Have Children?</h3> <p>Most boys who had one testicle removed and still have one healthy testicle can father children later in life. Sometimes doctors recommend sperm banking before <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-fertility.html/">cancer treatment</a> begins. Sperm banking freezes and stores sperm for future use.</p> <p>For younger teens and boys, an experimental procedure called sperm aspiration might be possible. This process removes immature sperm cells for future use.</p> <p>Talk to your son's doctor about these options and any other concerns.</p> <h3>What Happens After Treatment?</h3> <p>Depending on the type of tumor and its treatment, boys will need follow-up visits that might include:</p> <ul> <li>an exam</li> <li>blood tests</li> <li>a chest X-ray (if the cancer had spread)</li> <li>regular CT scans of the belly and pelvis for several years</li> </ul> <p>Sometimes, survivors of testicular cancer can get a second cancer. This usually is another testicular tumor, but also can be other types such as rectal, bladder, kidney, or <a class="kh_anchor">thyroid</a> cancer. Regular follow-up visits will help find these tumors early so treatment can start right away.</p> <h3>What Else Should I Know?</h3> <p>Teens who had a total inguinal orchiectomy can get a prosthetic, or artificial, testicle a few months after surgery. This can help make some boys feel more comfortable about their appearance.</p> <h3>How Can Parents Help?</h3> <p>To help your son after cancer treatment:</p> <ul class="kh_longline_list"> <li>Go to all follow-up doctor visits.</li> <li>Remind your son to do monthly testicular self-exams and to tell you or his doctor if he finds anything unusual.</li> <li>If your son had a total orchiectomy and feels self-conscious, it may help to talk to a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/finding-therapist.html/">therapist</a>.</li> </ul> <p>A cancer diagnosis and treatment can be stressful for any family. The care team is there to support your son and the whole family. Be sure to reach out to them with any questions or concerns. You and your son also can find more information and support online at:</p> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.testicularcancerawarenessfoundation.org/">Testicular Cancer Awareness Foundation</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.testicularcancersociety.org/">Testicular Cancer Society</a></li> </ul>Cáncer de testículoEl cáncer que afecta a los testículos se llama cáncer de testículo o cáncer testicular. Es poco frecuente en los niños. La mayoría de los casos afectan a adultos jóvenes y a hombres de mediana edad.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/parents/testicular-cancer-esp.html/7c6548af-a9c1-46bb-9bc6-80c031814cce
Can I Have Children After Cancer Treatments?When chemotherapy and other treatments attack cancer cells, they can affect some of the body's healthy cells too. As a teen, you'll want to know what this can mean to your fertility.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/fertility.html/4543f264-b161-402f-8231-768ae12a4f1f
Cancer BasicsGet the basics on cancer and cancer treatments in this article.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/cancer.html/80768a55-ae26-44d5-82a5-675138383191
Cancer CenterCancer is a serious illness that needs special treatment. Find out more about how kids can cope with cancer.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/center/cancer-center.html/ae289aa8-1161-4cfa-8e42-a526aef71591
ChemotherapyChemotherapy (chemo) is treatment with medicines that stop the growth of cancer cells.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/chemotherapy.html/54f93018-4955-4463-b067-5621e285210f
Childhood CancerDifferent kinds of childhood cancer have different signs, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. But today, most kids with cancer get better.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer.html/fb37fd75-d961-43c2-b963-ef6f60486038
Dealing With CancerIt's unusual for teens to have cancer, but it can happen. The good news is that most will survive and return to their everyday lives. Learn about how to cope if you or someone you know has cancer.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/deal-with-cancer.html/7bc989fa-70dd-47d8-8c21-c5359f1dca38
Effects of Cancer Treatment on FertilityWhile some cancer treatments have little to no effect on reproductive health, others are more likely cause temporary or permanent infertility.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-fertility.html/3b409a23-6f4e-47f5-9d9e-63ac4fed8be9
How to Do a Testicular Self-Exam (Slideshow)The testicular self-examination (TSE) is an easy way for guys to check their own testicles to make sure there aren't any unusual lumps or bumps - which are usually the first sign of testicular cancer.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/tse.html/d44c67a3-cce7-4a31-b6ac-c8564497811b
HydroceleA hydrocele is a pouch of fluid around the testicle inside the scrotum. Hydroceles are common in newborns, especially preemies.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hydrocele.html/e3072cb0-aa83-418b-8536-e1f3c66fa592
Keeping Your Child Healthy During Cancer RemissionMany families with a child in remission feel empowered to make lifestyle changes that could benefit their child's health in the future. Here are some tips.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/in-remission.html/cc655777-62dc-4041-b526-053828ad34bc
Nutritional Needs for Kids With CancerEating as well as possible and staying hydrated can help kids undergoing cancer treatment keep up their strength and deal with side effects. These tips can help.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-nutrition.html/12411d86-099c-4ca7-acc7-cb61405482f1
Radiation TherapyMore than half of all people with cancer are treated with radiation therapy. Get the facts on radiation therapy, including what it is, what to expect, and how to cope with side effects.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/radiation.html/4711ccb7-ee19-41a4-810b-938ce9b88a7b
Testicular ExamsIf you're a guy, you may be wondering why the doctor needs to do a testicular exam. Find out in this article.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/testicles.html/a2ed6b51-ca2d-49d2-bd62-91a97cce1928
Ultrasound: ScrotumDoctors order a scrotal ultrasound when they're concerned about symptoms such as scrotal pain or swelling.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/ultrasound-scrotal.html/aa69b36d-84f5-4bc3-b7b3-0a08fc28d05c
Undescended TesticlesShortly before birth, a boy's testicles usually descend into the scrotum. When a testicle doesn't make the move, this is called cryptorchidism, or undescended testicles.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cryptorchidism.html/329230c8-7371-4fc2-82c1-61e63cf14f53
VaricoceleA varicocele is an enlargement of the veins in the scrotum. Although there is no way to prevent a varicocele, it usually needs no special treatment.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/varicocele.html/102c678d-6e44-46bc-a9a6-f093f3118f80
What Is Cancer?When kids get cancer, it can often be treated and cured. Find out more in this article for kids.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/cancer.html/ef4ba8b1-102b-48e8-bce2-e71e8c578610
What Should I Do About Lumps in My Testicles?Find out what the experts have to say.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/lumps-testicles.html/7decaa41-8ab8-4850-97d3-22bac0eac254
Why Does the Doctor Have to Examine My Testicles?Find out what the experts have to say.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/expert-testicles.html/def2d3f9-24fb-42ba-bfae-d2122e855af0
kh:age-allAgesOrAgeAgnostickh:clinicalDesignation-oncologykh:genre-articlekh:primaryClinicalDesignation-oncologyCancer & Tumorshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/medical/cancer/088d4c52-cd61-4cca-af46-82de410d892aCancer Basicshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-center/cancer-basics/9ea0efb4-12d0-4d11-8b46-923deeb7b806