Stem Cell Transplantsenparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/P-stemCell-enHD-AR2.jpgStem cells help rebuild a weakened immune system. Stem cell transplants are effective treatments for a wide range of diseases, including cancer.stem cell transplants, aphresis, apheresis, bone marrow transplants, neutropenia, hematopoietic stem cells, autologous transplants, allogeneic transplants, WBCs, white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets, umbilical cord blood, cancer, immune system, leukemia, lymphoma, graft-versus-host disease, neuroblastoma, wilms tumor, transplantation, infusion, rejection, cancer center, transplants, donors, bone marrow, blood cells, grafting, cancers, treating cancer, cancer treatments, leukemia, lookemia, luykemia, luekemia, testicular cancers, ovarian cancers, blood disorders, immune system diseases, hematopoietic, umbilical cord blood, cord blood, autologous, allogeneic, marrow, bone marrow, stem cells, stem sells, transplantation, cancer treatments, CD1Transplant Programs, CD1Hematology, CD1Oncology, CD1Blood Bone Marrow Transplant, CD1Leukemia, CD1Lymphoma06/05/200909/12/201909/12/2019Amy W. Anzilotti, MD09/09/2019d98ca062-7d31-45ea-ae16-8fc40d54aea7https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/stem-cells.html/<h3>What Is a Stem Cell Transplant?</h3> <p>A stem cell transplant is when doctors put healthy stem cells into someone's bloodstream to replace their stem cells.</p> <p>It can take a while to feel better after a stem cell transplant, but the treatment can be very helpful for some illnesses.</p> <h3>What Are Stem Cells?</h3> <p>Stem cells are cells that can develop into many different types of cells. The stem cells used for transplants form blood cells. They become:</p> <ul> <li><strong>red blood cells</strong> that carry oxygen</li> <li><strong>white blood cells</strong> that fight infection</li> <li><strong>platelets</strong> that help blood clot</li> </ul> <h3>Why Are Stem Cell Transplants Done?</h3> <p>Stem cell transplants can help people with:</p> <ul> <li>severe blood or <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/immune.html/">immune system</a> illnesses</li> <li>some kinds of <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer.html/">cancer</a></li> <li>immune deficiency</li> <li>autoimmune diseases such as <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/lupus.html/">lupus</a></li> <li>blood disorders (such as thalassemia or <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/sickle-cell-anemia.html/">sickle cell disease</a>)</li> </ul> <h3>Where Do the Stem Cells Come From?</h3> <p>Doctors can get the stem cells from the:</p> <ul> <li> bone marrow (this is also called a <strong>bone marrow transplant</strong>)</li> <li>bloodstream</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cord-blood.html/">umbilical cord blood</a> after the cord is no longer attached to a newborn baby</li> </ul> <p>A person who provides the stem cells is a <strong>donor</strong>. For some illnesses, people can be their own donor. Their stem cells are taken out, frozen, and transplanted back later. Other times, someone else donates the stem cells.</p> <p>When stem cells come from another person, the stem cells must have similar <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/about-genetics.html/">genetic</a> makeup. Usually, a child's brother or sister is a good match. A parent or even an unrelated person sometimes can be a match.</p> <h3>What Can Happen When a Donor Isn't a Good Match?</h3> <p>If the donor stem cells are not a good match (and sometimes even if they are):</p> <ul class="kh_longline_list"> <li>The body's immune system can attack the donor stem cells. This is called <strong>rejection</strong>.</li> <li>The transplanted cells can attack the body's cells. This is called <strong>graft-versus-host disease</strong>.</li> </ul> <h3>How Are Stem Cell Transplants Done?</h3> <p>Before a stem cell transplant, doctors place a <strong>central line</strong> (or central venous catheter). This type of IV (intravenous) line goes into the skin and into a large vein near the heart. A central line can stay in the body longer than a regular IV. It gives the medical team a way to give medicines and collect blood for testing without doing a lot of needle sticks.</p> <p>Stem cell transplants are done in the hospital. First, the person getting the donated stem cells has high doses of <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/chemotherapy.html/">chemotherapy</a> and/or <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/radiation.html/">radiation</a> to:</p> <ul> <li>kill the unhealthy cells causing the illness</li> <li>weaken their immune system so it doesn't reject the donor stem cells</li> </ul> <p>Then, the person gets the donor stem cells through an intravenous line (IV).</p> <h3>What Happens After the Transplant?</h3> <p>After someone has a stem cell transplant, their body needs time to make new red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. During this time, they're at a higher risk for infections, bleeding, and other problems.</p> <p>Most people stay in the hospital for 3–5 weeks after the transplant. Their medical team will:</p> <ul class="kh_longline_list"> <li>Do <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/injections-tests.html/">blood tests</a> to see if the transplanted stem cells are making new blood cells.</li> <li>Give medicines to help prevent rejection and graft-versus-host disease.</li> <li>Give medicines to prevent infections.</li> <li>Give <a class="kh_anchor">transfusions</a> of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.</li> <li>Check that organs (such as the liver and kidneys) are working properly.</li> <li>Treat any problems that happen, such as mouth sores, <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/vomit.html/">vomiting</a>, <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/diarrhea.html/">diarrhea</a>, infections, bleeding, rejection, and graft-versus-host disease.</li> <li>Make sure the patient is getting good nutrition.</li> <li>Make sure that all visitors follow infection prevention rules, which include: <ul> <li>No sick visitors.</li> <li>All visitors must <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hand-washing.html/">wash their hands</a> before entering the room.</li> <li>All visitors must wear a mask, gloves, and gown.</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h3>How Can Parents Help?</h3> <p>It takes a child's immune system about a year to recover after a stem cell transplant. Until then, kids can get very sick from infections. Even a mild infection, like a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cold.html/">cold</a>, can be serious. To help your child avoid infections:</p> <ul> <li>Your child, family members, and visitors should wash their hands well and often with antibacterial soap and/or hand sanitizer.</li> <li>Don't let anyone who is sick near your child.</li> <li>Your child should bathe every day with a mild shampoo and soap.</li> </ul> <p>Follow your medical team's instructions for:</p> <ul> <li>when your child can go to school or other public places</li> <li>when your child needs to wear a mask</li> <li>what foods are OK for your child</li> <li>if your child can be around pets</li> </ul> <h3>What Else Should I Know?</h3> <p>Most kids who have had a stem cell transplant feel better over time after they leave the hospital. It's a lot for a child and family to manage the hospital stay and the recovery period. Find support through other family members, your medical team, a counselor, or social worker. Taking care of yourself will help you take care of your child.</p> <p>To help your child recover and stay healthy:</p> <ul class="kh_longline_list"> <li>Take your child to all follow-up doctor visits.</li> <li>Support your child during the physical changes that can happen (such as hair loss and tiredness from <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/side-effects.html/">chemotherapy and/or radiation</a>).</li> <li>Help your child deal with any loneliness from being away from friends and family during recovery. Help set up Skype, Google Hangouts, or FaceTime so your child can keep in touch.</li> <li>Ask if your child wants to talk to a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/finding-therapist.html/">counselor</a> or social worker to help manage the feelings that may come during recovery.</li> <li>Help your child develop a simple routine of light exercise, meals, and activities like games or reading.</li> </ul> <h3>When Should I Call the Doctor?</h3> <p>Call your doctor right away if your child:</p> <ul> <li>has a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/fever.html/">fever</a> of 100.4&deg;F (38.0&deg;C) or higher taken orally (in the mouth)&nbsp;</li> <li>has a runny nose, <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/childs-cough.html/">cough</a>, or congestion</li> <li>has vomiting or diarrhea</li> <li>has black bowel movements (poops)</li> <li>has easy bruising or bleeding</li> <li>has <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hematuria.html/">blood in the pee</a></li> <li>has a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/headache.html/">headache</a>, dizziness, or blurred vision</li> <li>coughs up blood or has a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/nose-bleed.html/">nosebleed</a> that won't stop after a few minutes</li> </ul>Trasplantes de células madreUn trasplante de células madre es el procedimiento médico que consiste en introducir células madre sanas en el torrente sanguíneo de una persona para sustituir a sus propias células madre.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/parents/stem-cells-esp.html/acabae21-b0a8-4f5f-b796-3cd6a83c227b
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of childhood cancer. Because it develops and gets worse quickly, prompt treatment is very important. With treatment, most kids are cured.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/all.html/70e490be-1dce-4795-821e-c0ba28838828
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) happens when the body makes too many immature white blood cells. Among kids with leukemia, 20% have this type. With treatment, most recover.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/aml.html/7f9a5d82-cefc-4e34-8942-a11c3d0397f9
Alpha ThalassemiaAlpha thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body has a problem producing alpha globin, a component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen throughout the body.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/thalassemias.html/3f585363-6910-4555-8974-0ac2bce7df91
Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone MarrowA bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy liquid part of the bone where blood cells are made.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/aspiration.html/5925b589-4487-4975-85f6-850dc8c31e07
Beta ThalassemiaBeta thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body has a problem producing beta globin, a component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen throughout the body.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/beta-thalassemia.html/92b6c08b-14ad-4b67-bc47-c1acd388d19c
BloodHere are the basics about the life-sustaining fluid called blood.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/blood.html/79380405-c704-478c-a739-1d19c414015b
Caring for a Seriously Ill ChildTaking care of a chronically ill child is one of the most draining and difficult tasks a parent can face. But support groups, social workers, and family friends often can help.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/seriously-ill.html/0a9f2c42-b8d4-492d-8b22-6e4af2eeec54
Cord Blood BankingShould you bank your newborn's cord blood? This article can help you decide.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cord-blood.html/e0639a20-b8ba-4892-b03b-58f1c2d98efb
LeukemiaLeukemia refers to cancers of the white blood cells. With the proper treatment, the outlook for kids with leukemia is quite good.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-leukemia.html/d78fde51-319d-4c82-9476-e1e16f31c187
LupusLupus is known as an autoimmune disease in which a person's immune system mistakenly works against the body's own tissues.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/lupus.html/5d0f4916-af65-49d3-afff-09d656af8ff1
LymphomaLymphoma is cancer that begins in the body's lymphatic tissue. It's a common type of cancer in children, but most recover from it.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-lymphoma.html/0ad821a9-0139-4995-81e6-6c365a632f00
NeuroblastomaLearn about neuroblastoma, a rare type of childhood cancer that develops in infants and young children.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/neuroblastoma.html/bee4b21c-7e49-4a5c-ae2c-5aeafafc4187
NeutropeniaCertain cancers, or cancer treatment, can weaken the immune system, requiring a child to stay home to avoid exposure to germs. Here are ways to help your child make the best of it.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/neutropenia.html/e6c76bd6-23c1-4e34-98ac-1d737131d51f
Non-Hodgkin (Non-Hodgkin's) Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (also called non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) is a is a cancer of the lymphatic system. The majority of kids with this type of cancer are cured.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/non-hodgkin.html/02e2a63f-7130-4457-bc47-386f2eec991b
Severe Combined ImmunodeficiencySevere combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an immune deficiency that can be successfully treated if it's found early.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/severe-immunodeficiency.html/abe0da22-f4d2-453c-9acb-39b9ed61f021
Sickle Cell DiseaseSickle cell disease is a blood disorder that makes red blood cells change shape and cause health problems. Find out how to help your child.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/sickle-cell-anemia.html/4b0a03a5-a1be-4cb9-ad8d-6fd5ae9faa0a
Stem Cell TransplantsStem cells can develop into cells with different skills, so they're useful in treating diseases like cancer.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/stem-cells.html/28245333-8896-4baf-a82f-dd5000213e7d
Wilms TumorWilms tumor is a cancer of the kidneys that usually affects newborns and the very young. Fortunately, most kids with Wilms tumor survive and go on to live normal, healthy lives.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/wilms.html/04155d1b-c25f-435e-b430-877088037392
Words to Know: TransplantsEasy-to-understand definitions of some key transplant terms.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/glossary-transplants.html/4dcddec1-7c9f-44a1-b6ff-09b07d452a70
Your Immune SystemThe immune system keeps you healthy. How does it work? Find out in this article for kids.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/immune.html/6b9fad76-c866-450e-81d9-1e625343744f
kh:age-allAgesOrAgeAgnostickh:clinicalDesignation-immunologykh:clinicalDesignation-transplantkh:genre-articlekh:primaryClinicalDesignation-oncologyCancer & Tumorshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/medical/cancer/088d4c52-cd61-4cca-af46-82de410d892aAllergies & the Immune Systemhttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/medical/allergies/22d1d841-c54a-4649-872e-9cd10af36de5Heart & Blood Vesselshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/medical/heart/e9ef0549-4392-4778-974d-753019ce4b8bSurgical Conditionshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/system/surgical/e79494d5-d5b9-41cd-99a0-13b82606c9adCancer Treatment & Preventionhttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-center/treatment/9b82611a-8da8-4937-991c-407024862b68