Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)enparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/P-RMS-enHD-AR2.jpgRhabdomyosarcoma is a cancerous tumor that shows up in the body's soft tissues. With early diagnosis and timely treatment, most kids make a full recovery.soft tissue, soft-tissue cancer, cancers, sarcoma, sarcomas, chemotheraopy, radiation, tumors, muscle, ligaments, rhabdomyosarcoma, rabdomyosarcoma, RMS, rhabdo, embryonal RMS, alveolar RMS, chemo, cancers, cancer center, kids with cancer, childhood cancers, cancer treatments, embryonal RMS, alveolar RMS, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, neurofibromatosis, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Costello syndrome, Noonan syndrome, syndromes, soft-tissue tumors, cancerous, malignant, malignancies, bone marrow, biopsies05/21/200908/06/201809/02/2019Scott M. Bradfield, MD, MBA09/01/20166a0ef07e-132c-48fb-8368-3081bfc72c45https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/rms.html/<h3>What Is Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)?</h3> <p>Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS or "rhabdo") is a cancerous tumor that develops in the body's soft tissues, usually the muscles. It can affect the head, neck, bladder, vagina, arms, legs, trunk, or just about any body part. Cells from rhabdomyosarcomas are often fast growing and can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.</p> <p>Rhabdomyosarcoma (rab-doe-myo-sar-KO-muh) is the most common type of soft-tissue cancer in children. Kids can develop it at any age, but most cases are in kids between 2 and 6 years old and 15 and 19 years old. Boys tend to be affected more often than girls.</p> <p>Treating RMS usually includes <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/chemotherapy.html/">chemotherapy</a>, surgery, and <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/radiation.html/">radiation</a>. With early detection and timely treatment, most kids make a full recovery.</p> <h3>Types of Tumors</h3> <p>The two main types of RMS in kids are:</p> <ol class="kh_longline_list"> <li><strong>Embryonal RMS:</strong> This tumor usually develops in the head and neck area, genitals, or urinary tract. It typically affects kids younger than 6. Although it's an aggressive (fast-growing) type of tumor, most cases of embryonal RMS respond well to treatment.</li> <li><strong>Alveolar RMS:</strong> This type, which is most likely to happen during the teen years, most often affects the arms or legs, chest, or abdomen. It, too, is fast-growing but often more difficult to treat. Most kids with alveolar RMS need intensive treatment.</li> </ol> <h3>What Causes Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)?</h3> <p>The cause of RMS isn't clear, but doctors know that certain medical conditions can make some children more likely to develop it. These include genetic conditions like:</p> <ul> <li>Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a rare genetic disorder that makes a person likely to develop cancer at some point in his or her life</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/nf.html/">Neurofibromatosis</a>, a condition that causes tumors to grow on nerve tissue</li> <li>Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, a congenital (present at birth) disorder that can cause too much growth in the body, including the internal organs</li> <li>Costello syndrome and Noonan syndrome, both of which can cause deformities, developmental delays, and other problems</li> </ul> <h3>What Are the Signs and Symptoms of&nbsp;<span style="font-size: 12px;"></span>Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)?</h3> <p>Symptoms of RMS depend on the size and location of the tumor. Sometimes a lump may appear on a child's body and there may be swelling, often without pain. Other times, the tumor may be so deep within the body that it causes few if any symptoms.</p> <p>Rhabdomyosarcoma in the head may cause headaches, bulging of an eye, or a droopy eyelid. In the <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/kidneys-urinary.html/">urinary system</a>, RMS affects urination (peeing) and bowel movements, and can lead to blood in the pee or stool (poop). If a muscle tumor is pressing on a nerve, a child might feel tingling or weakness in that area.</p> <h3>How Is Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) Diagnosed?<span style="font-size: 1.2em;"><br /></span></h3> <p>If a doctor thinks a child has RMS or another soft-tissue tumor, he or she will do a thorough physical exam and order these tests:</p> <ul class="kh_longline_list"> <li><strong>Imaging studies.</strong> These will likely include a CT scan, <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/mri.html/">MRI</a>, and maybe an X-ray, bone scan, or ultrasound. Not only will these tests help find the size and location of the tumor, they also&nbsp;can&nbsp;determine if cancer has spread (metastasized).</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/biopsy.html/"><strong>Biopsy</strong></a><strong>.</strong>&nbsp;For a biopsy, a sample of a lump, a sore, or tissue is taken from the body for close examination. This helps doctors make a diagnosis and choose the right treatment. Biopsies often are done laparoscopically (using a small incision and a camera to guide the doctor's movements). The tumor might also be removed completely, if possible.&nbsp;</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/labtest5.html/"><strong>Blood tests</strong></a><strong>.</strong> Tests such as a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/labtest4.html/">complete blood count</a>, <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/labtest6.html/">liver function panel</a>, and blood chemistries can give important information about how well the liver and other organs are working. If the doctor thinks the tumor is related to an underlying genetic condition, some <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/genetics.html/">genetic tests</a> also may be done.</li> <li><strong><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/aspiration.html/">Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy</a>.</strong>&nbsp;Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that makes blood cells. This procedure involves removing a small amount of bone marrow tissue and examining it for cancer cells.&nbsp;</li> </ul> <h3>How Is Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) Treated?</h3> <p>Treatment of RMS and other soft-tissue tumors depends on <strong>staging</strong>. Staging helps determine the extent of the cancer and whether it has spread to other parts of the body. Knowing the stage of the disease helps doctors decide how to treat it.&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="font-size: 1em;">Staging takes into account details like the size of the tumor (or tumors), how deeply the tumor has penetrated an organ, the area of the body where the cancer began, and whether the tumor has spread to other organs.</span></p> <p>Other information (like the type of tumor and the child's age and overall health) also helps doctors develop treatment plans. Those plans can include the following options, in combination or alone:</p> <ul class="kh_longline_list"> <li><strong>Surgery.</strong> When the tumor is in an area that doctors can reach safely, surgery is done to remove as much of the tumor as possible.</li> <li><strong>Radiation.</strong> This treatment uses high-energy radiation from X-rays, gamma rays, or fast-moving subatomic particles (called particle or proton beam therapy) to target and destroy cancer cells. Besides killing cancer cells, radiation therapy also can harm normal cells, causing physical <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/side-effects.html/">side effects</a> like fatigue (tiredness), nausea, and <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cosmetic-effects.html/">hair loss</a>. Most side effects go away once treatment has ended. During treatment, the health care team carefully monitors radiation doses to protect healthy tissue as much as possible. This helps reduce <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/late-effects.html/">long-term effects</a>.</li> <li><strong>Chemotherapy.</strong> In contrast to radiation, which destroys the cancerous cells of a tumor in a specific area of the body, chemo works to treat cancer throughout the body. Often, several chemotherapy drugs are combined to attack the cancer cells in different ways. Like radiation, side effects are likely but will ease once treatment ends.</li> </ul> <h3>Looking Ahead</h3> <p>Being told that a child has cancer can be a terrifying experience, and the stress of cancer treatment can be overwhelming for any family.</p> <p>Although you might feel like it at times, you're not alone. To find support for&nbsp;<a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/caregivers.html/">yourself</a>&nbsp;or your child, talk to your doctor, a hospital social worker, or a child life specialist. Many resources are available that can help you get through this difficult time.</p>RabdomiosarcomaHabitualmente, el tratamiento del rabdomiosarcoma incluye quimioterapia, cirugía y radiación. Con una detección temprana y tratamiento oportuno, la mayoría de los niños se recuperan por completo.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/parents/rms-esp.html/aa6c7d0e-00f9-4c4f-9564-2d0cda92c50f
Balancing Academics and Serious IllnessWhen your child has a serious or chronic illness, it's hard to think beyond the next treatment. But with planning and communication, you can help your child balance treatment and academics.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/academics-illness.html/1ea6f392-d068-4cd7-bac5-f257148e4e67
Can I Have Children After Cancer Treatments?When chemotherapy and other treatments attack cancer cells, they can affect some of the body's healthy cells too. As a teen, you'll want to know what this can mean to your fertility.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/fertility.html/4543f264-b161-402f-8231-768ae12a4f1f
Cancer BasicsGet the basics on cancer and cancer treatments in this article.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/cancer.html/80768a55-ae26-44d5-82a5-675138383191
Cancer CenterFrom treatments and prevention to coping with the emotional aspects of cancer, the Cancer Center provides comprehensive information that parents need.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/center/cancer-center.html/92fcdf56-6935-42ac-a953-9eaf5f96fe2f
Cancer: Readjusting to Home and SchoolIf you've just finished a long hospital stay, you may have questions about reconnecting with friends and family. Get answers in this article for teens.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/cancer-readjusting.html/5473fe0c-b8b9-4657-a320-1ab5d91bb9e0
ChemotherapyChemotherapy (chemo) is treatment with medicines that stop the growth of cancer cells.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/chemotherapy.html/54f93018-4955-4463-b067-5621e285210f
Coping With Cosmetic Effects of Cancer TreatmentIt's normal for kids to have hair loss, skin changes, or weight gain during treatment. This article offers tips for helping kids feel better about their appearance.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cosmetic-effects.html/901f4716-eb3c-4ce8-a36c-e60d8f586450
Dealing With CancerIt's unusual for teens to have cancer, but it can happen. The good news is that most will survive and return to their everyday lives. Learn about how to cope if you or someone you know has cancer.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/deal-with-cancer.html/7bc989fa-70dd-47d8-8c21-c5359f1dca38
Effects of Cancer Treatment on FertilityWhile some cancer treatments have little to no effect on reproductive health, others are more likely cause temporary or permanent infertility.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-fertility.html/3b409a23-6f4e-47f5-9d9e-63ac4fed8be9
Ewing SarcomaThis type of cancer mainly develops in the arms, legs, ribs, spinal column, and pelvis. Early diagnosis and treatment mean most kids have a good chance of recovery.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/ewings.html/d0f7ffae-48f0-4233-929e-5ec9f9c4b56a
Getting a CAT Scan (Video)A CAT scan or CT scan is a painless procedure that takes detailed pictures of the inside of your body. Watch how an abdominal CAT scan is done in this video for kids.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/video-ctscan.html/59cec822-c95a-4064-9c12-136e9e8d8cf6
Late Effects of Cancer and Cancer TreatmentLong-term side effects, or late effects, happen to many cancer survivors. With early diagnosis and proper follow-up care, most late effects can be treated or cured.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/late-effects.html/4f0ec7e2-6a0d-4c67-b4e7-f6e15de2816d
Nutritional Needs for Kids With CancerEating as well as possible and staying hydrated can help kids undergoing cancer treatment keep up their strength and deal with side effects. These tips can help.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-nutrition.html/12411d86-099c-4ca7-acc7-cb61405482f1
OsteosarcomaOsteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Boys are more likely to have osteosarcoma than girls, and most cases of osteosarcoma involve the knee.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-osteosarcoma.html/2a1588a0-1908-44bb-9bd8-db63c33806ce
Radiation TherapyMore than half of all people with cancer are treated with radiation therapy. Get the facts on radiation therapy, including what it is, what to expect, and how to cope with side effects.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/radiation.html/4711ccb7-ee19-41a4-810b-938ce9b88a7b
Side Effects of Chemotherapy and RadiationSide effects of cancer treatment can include flu-like symptoms, hair loss, and blood clotting problems. After treatment ends, most side effects go away.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/side-effects.html/96a6771c-22f7-4b52-ae6b-6aa9487bc738
Taking Care of You: Support for CaregiversIt's common to put your own needs last when caring for a child you love. But to be the best you can be, you need to take care of yourself, too. Here are some tips to help you recharge.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/caregivers.html/0b9a62ee-4f92-436b-b3ab-4b0f2ecdd005
Word! UltrasoundLike an X-ray, an ultrasound is a way of looking at what's going on inside a person's body.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/word-ultrasound.html/497b1285-d7d2-45f8-9e6c-2daa9c45e0d2
kh:age-allAgesOrAgeAgnostickh:clinicalDesignation-oncologykh:genre-articlekh:primaryClinicalDesignation-oncologyCancer & Tumorshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/medical/cancer/088d4c52-cd61-4cca-af46-82de410d892aCancer Basicshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-center/cancer-basics/9ea0efb4-12d0-4d11-8b46-923deeb7b806