Renal Tubular Acidosisenparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/P-renalTubularAcidosis-enHD-AR1.jpgThis kidney problem causes acid levels in the blood to become too high, causing fatigue, muscle weakness, and other kidney problems. The condition is usually treatable.renal tubular acidosis, rta, type 1 rta, distal renal tubular acidosis, type 2 rta, proximal renal tubular acidosis, type 3 rta, type 4 rta, hyperkalemic renal tubular acidosis, hyperkalemic rta, hyperkalemia, blood, acid, metabolism, urine, urinary tract, kidneys, renal tubule, renal system, nephron, urinary tract infection, uti, sickle cell disease, lupus, sjogren syndrome, autoimmune disorder, sodium bicarbonate, foamy urine, bloody urine, hematuria, kidney disease, kidney damage03/05/201409/26/201609/02/2019Robert S. Mathias, MD03/14/2014b3a16019-6ee3-45f1-bcdb-e430f17ee086https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/renal-tubular-acidosis.html/<p>Each time our internal organs do something, such as digesting food or healing damaged tissue, chemical reactions take place in the body's cells. These reactions cause acid to go into the bloodstream.</p> <p>Normally, the <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/kidneys-urinary.html/">kidneys</a> remove excess acid from blood, but certain diseases, genetic defects, or drugs can damage a kidney's ability to do this important job. This can allow too much acid to build up in the blood and cause problems. When this happens, it's called <strong>renal tubular acidosis (RTA)</strong>.</p> <p>Without treatment, RTA can affect a child's growth and cause <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/az-kidneystones.html/">kidney stones</a>, fatigue, muscle weakness, and other symptoms. Over time, untreated acidosis can lead to long-term problems like bone disease, <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/kidney-diseases-childhood.html/">kidney disease</a>, and kidney failure.</p> <p>Fortunately, such complications are rare, since most cases of RTA can be effectively treated with medicines or by treating the condition that's causing the acid to build up.</p> <h3>How the Kidneys Work</h3> <p><span>The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located toward the back of the abdominal cavity, just above the waist. The kidneys remove waste products and extra water from the food a person eats, returning chemicals the body needs (such as sodium, phosphorus, and potassium) back into the bloodstream. The extra water combines with other waste to become urine (pee).</span></p> <p>The main functional units of the kidneys, where the blood filtering happens, are tiny structures called <strong>nephrons</strong>. Each kidney has about a million nephrons, and each nephron has a <strong>renal tubule</strong>, a tube where the acid and waste products filtered from the blood are secreted into urine.</p> <p>Having a disease or defect can interfere with how the renal tubules function, which can lead to RTA.</p> <h3>Causes</h3> <p>There are a few different kinds of RTA. The first two types are named for the part of the renal tubule in which the damage or defect is found.</p> <ul class="kh_longline_list"> <li><strong>Type 1 RTA</strong>, or <strong>distal renal tubular acidosis</strong>, is the most common kind of RTA. Distal means that the defect is relatively far from the beginning of the tubule. Distal RTA can be inherited or caused by high blood calcium, <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/sickle-cell-anemia.html/">sickle cell disease</a>, autoimmune disorders like <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/lupus.html/">lupus</a> and Sjogren syndrome, or the use of certain drugs.</li> <li><strong>Type 2 RTA</strong>, or <strong>proximal renal tubular acidosis</strong>, happens when the damage or defect is relatively close to the start of the tubule. Proximal RTA mostly happens in infants and usually is related to a disorder called Fanconi's syndrome. Vitamin D deficiency, fructose intolerance, the use of certain drugs, and some diseases also can cause proximal RTA.</li> <li><strong>Type 3 RTA</strong> is a combination of distal RTA and proximal RTA and is rarely used as a classification anymore.</li> <li><strong>Type 4 RTA</strong>, or <strong>hyperkalemic renal tubular acidosis</strong>, is caused by a transport disorder in the distal tubule. Transport involves the movement of electrolytes such as sodium, chloride, and potassium between the blood and body parts. When this process is abnormal, it can cause too much potassium to build up in the blood (<a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/az-hyperkalemia.html/">hyperkalemia</a>). This can be a problem for the heart and other organs. Hyperkalemic RTA can be caused by <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/urinary.html/">urinary tract infections (UTIs)</a>, autoimmune disorders, sickle cell disease, diabetes, kidney transplant rejection, or the use of certain drugs.</li> </ul> <h3>Symptoms</h3> <p>A lot of the time, kids with RTA don't have any symptoms and may not know they have the disease until it shows up on a blood or urine test.</p> <p>For some kids, the first symptom of RTA is kidney stones, which can cause symptoms like:</p> <ul> <li>pain in the back or side that spreads to the lower abdomen</li> <li>pain while urinating</li> <li>pee that is red, brown, or cloudy</li> <li>frequent urge to urinate</li> <li>nausea and vomiting</li> </ul> <p>Over time, RTA can affect bone development and keep a child from growing as much as he or she should. This is often why doctors suspect RTA in the first place.</p> <p>Other symptoms of RTA you might notice include:</p> <ul> <li>confusion, decreased alertness, or fatigue</li> <li>increased breathing and heart rates</li> <li>decreased urination</li> <li>muscle weakness</li> <li>muscle cramps and pain in the back and abdomen</li> <li>rickets (a disorder that can cause bone pain and skeletal and dental deformities)</li> </ul> <h3>Diagnosis</h3> <p>If your child shows any symptoms of RTA, see a doctor right away. The sooner something is done about the condition, the more effective treatment will be.</p> <p>To diagnose RTA, the doctor will do a physical examination and take a sample of your child's blood for testing. He or she also may want a urine sample. If test results suggest that your child might have RTA, the doctor will work with you to decide the best way to treat it.</p> <h3>Treatment</h3> <p>How RTA is treated depends on what's causing it. If it's a reaction to a certain drug, treatment may involve stopping use of the drug or changing the dosage. If an underlying disease or other condition is causing RTA, it will be treated until that condition resolves.</p> <p>To treat the effects of RTA, it's necessary to restore a normal acid level to the blood. To do this, doctors prescribe alkaline medicines, such as sodium bicarbonate, that help to lower the blood's concentration of acid.</p> <p>Most of the time, treatment for RTA is effective. Kids whose RTA is caused by a genetic defect may need treatment for the rest of their lives. The good news is that sticking with their treatments lets kids remain healthy.<//p> Acidosis tubular renalGeneralmente, los riñones extraen el exceso de ácido de la sangre pero, ciertas enfermedades, defectos genéticos o medicamentos pueden dañar la capacidad de los riñones para realizar esta importante tarea. Esto puede provocar que se acumule demasiado ácido en la sangre y causar problemas. Cuando esto sucede, ocurre una afección que se denomina renal tubular acidosis (acidosis tubular renal, RTA).https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/parents/renal-tubular-acidosis-esp.html/bd79662d-bad3-4f04-97c7-60a89bd86987
A to Z: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)Learn about bacterial infections and conditions that can affect the urinary tract.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/az-uti.html/95ea6fda-c4d9-48b1-9454-c91a1bb0ccd7
Basic Blood Chemistry TestsDoctors order basic blood chemistry tests to assess a wide range of conditions and the function of organs.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/labtest5.html/e40eaa28-5011-4492-8c05-0c36af25989a
BloodHere are the basics about the life-sustaining fluid called blood.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/blood.html/79380405-c704-478c-a739-1d19c414015b
Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)Hematuria is pretty common, and most of the time it's not serious. Find out what causes blood in the urine and what to do about it.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/hematuria.html/1a7a52a4-6c14-4897-87a4-eeeb3d3cd0b1
Definition: KidneyThe kidneys are a pair of organs that are found on either side of the spine, just below the rib cage in the back.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/kidney-def.html/f539dd9a-ffef-4e6a-a337-0341c4d9092a
GlomerulonephritisGlomerulonephritis happens when tiny filtering units in the kidneys stop working properly. Most cases get better on their own or with treatment.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/glomerulonephritis.html/18feaf09-b1c5-40e8-8bdb-ffa78db188b9
Kidney DiseaseSometimes, the kidneys can't do their job properly. In teens, kidney disease is usually due to infections, structural issues, glomerulonephritis, or nephrotic syndrome. https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/kidney.html/4f21e885-14a9-4b12-a514-66998f93043c
Kidney Diseases in ChildhoodThe kidneys play a critical role in health. When something goes wrong, it could indicate a kidney disease. What are kidney diseases, and how can they be treated?https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/kidney-diseases-childhood.html/ce75e066-a9e8-498f-97e8-6459154b9748
Kidney StonesKidney stones mostly happen to adults, but sometimes teens can get them. Find out what kidney stones are, how to treat them, and ways to help prevent them.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/kidney-stones.html/52e208a2-626b-4e2e-8491-a5cba5a9099b
Kidneys and Urinary TractThe bean-shaped kidneys, each about the size of a child's fist, are essential to our health. Their most important role is to filter blood and produce urine.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/kidneys-urinary.html/0cbf3444-1a45-4512-9af9-bc76e5592336
LupusLupus is known as an autoimmune disease in which a person's immune system mistakenly works against the body's own tissues.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/lupus.html/5d0f4916-af65-49d3-afff-09d656af8ff1
Nephrotic SyndromeNephrotic syndrome happens when tiny filtering units in the kidneys stop working properly. This can cause weight gain and other symptoms. Most kids eventually outgrow it.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/nephrotic-syndrome.html/b5a6b27d-3f05-405f-b91b-909cac637dc0
Sickle Cell DiseaseSickle cell disease is a disease of the blood. Red blood cells are shaped like sickles, and can get stuck, especially inside smaller blood vessels.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/sickle-cell.html/0801fa81-f59c-4e48-ae8c-ed9aa17ecf23
Urinary Tract InfectionsA urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common reasons that teens visit a doctor. Learn about the symptoms of UTIs, how they're treated, and more in this article.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/uti.html/a97f6174-4629-4696-b5bc-a461856cdd95
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in kids. They're easy to treat and usually clear up in a week or so.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/urinary.html/6a6f9f52-f903-4360-877f-dd35d531d84f
Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)This problem with the urinary tract causes urine to flow backward from the bladder to the kidneys. Most cases can be treated effectively, and many kids outgrow the condition.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/vesicoureteral-reflux.html/78339e78-b7bf-4215-900c-bbc7ffef06ab
When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney DiseaseParents of kids who have a chronic kidney disease often worry about what might happen next, how their child feels, and what treatments are likely to be involved. Find answers here.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/chronic-kidney-disease.html/9edcb2c0-d2af-4fd7-88e9-48c0ff7a2f55
Your KidneysYou need at least one kidney to live. Find out why in this article for kids.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/kidneys.html/e8b731bd-422b-4032-952a-5f2223257f23
kh:age-allAgesOrAgeAgnostickh:clinicalDesignation-nephrologykh:genre-articlekh:primaryClinicalDesignation-nephrologyKidney & Urinary Systemhttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/medical/kidney/ddb130c4-4734-46c1-af49-0b996a96356a