Precision Medicineenparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/Precision_Medicine_enHD_2.jpgPrecision medicine is a new way to treat and prevent illnesses. It uses the differences in a person's genes, environment, and lifestyle to customize care. precision medicine, genes, genetics, environment, lifestyle, pharmacogenomics, pharmaco, genomes, genome, targeted therapy, disease treatment, prevention, targeted care, targeted medicine, precision diagnosis, customize, customized care, genetic code, precision medicine definition06/05/201702/14/201902/14/2019Karen W. Gripp, MD and Pamela H. Arn, MD10/03/20173c8d17d3-9720-4fe6-874c-202eb5dc4d16https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/precision-medicine.html/<h2>What Is Precision Medicine?</h2> <p>Precision medicine &mdash; also called "personalized medicine" or "genomic medicine" &mdash; is a way to guide the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases based on the person's individual <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/about-genetics.html/">genes</a>, environment, and lifestyle.</p> <h2>What Do Genes Have to Do With Precision Medicine?</h2> <p>The launch of precision medicine came when the international Human Genome Project successfully sequenced the <strong>human genome</strong> &mdash; "decoding" human DNA and identifying the genes that it contains. Most of our cells contain a complete set of DNA, the operating instructions that influence everything from a person's hair color to susceptibility to disease.</p> <ul class="kh_longline_list"> <li>A <strong>genome</strong> is a living thing's genetic material &mdash; a complete set of DNA, containing all of the genes the body needs to develop, grow, and maintain itself. <ul> <li><strong>DNA</strong> is the hereditary material in all living cells; each cell in the body contains about 6 feet of DNA thread. DNA is wrapped together to form <strong>chromosomes</strong>. Most cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46.</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/about-genetics.html/"><strong>Genes</strong></a> are sections or segments of DNA carried on chromosomes that determine specific human characteristics (like height and hair color). As cells duplicate, they pass this genetic information to the new cells.</li> </ul> </li> <li><strong>Sequencing</strong> means figuring out the exact order of base pairs in a segment of DNA. Bases are the "building blocks" of DNA that store the information in our genes. Genes, along with things in our environment (like diet and exercise), combine to produce an individual's <strong>phenotype</strong> &mdash; the group of traits (characteristics) that determine how the person's body looks and works (like the enzymes needed to digest food or the pigment that gives eyes their color).</li> </ul> <h2>What Are the Benefits of Precision Medicine?</h2> <p>Precision medicine helps health care providers better understand the many things &mdash; including environment, lifestyle, and heredity &mdash;&nbsp;that play a role in a patient's health, disease, or condition. This information lets them more accurately predict which treatments will be most effective and safe, or possibly how to prevent the illness from starting in the first place.</p> <h2>How Does Precision Medicine Work?</h2> <p>Let's use cancer as an example:</p> <p>Patient Smith is diagnosed with cancer. Doctors use diagnostic tests (<a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/biopsy.html/">biopsies</a>, lab tests, etc.) to "grade" the cancer; for example, to see how large a tumor is or whether the cancer has spread.</p> <p>Now, for patients with some kinds of cancers (such as breast, lung, colorectal, melanoma, and leukemias), <strong>molecular genetic testing</strong> can be a tool to guide more individualized and effective care. The testing finds differences (called <strong>mutations</strong>) in the genes in the person's cancer cells. This helps doctors decide which treatments might improve survival and minimize side effects.</p> <p><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/pharmacogenomics.html/">Drug treatment decisions</a> for some diseases, like cystic fibrosis, is another example of precision medicine in action:</p> <p><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cf.html/">Cystic fibrosis</a> is a genetic chronic disease that leads to severe lung problems and damage to other organs and body tissues. Molecular <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/genetics.html/">genetic testing</a> has shown that many different gene mutations can cause it. A new (and very expensive) drug developed to treat cystic fibrosis is only effective in people who have certain specific gene mutations causing their disease. So genetic testing of patients with cystic fibrosis can help doctors identify which patients benefit from treatment with the drug.</p> <h2>Are There Problems or Limitations With Precision Medicine?</h2> <p>Although use of a person's genetic profile to guide health care decisions will certainly become more common and helpful as time goes on, there are a number of issues to consider:</p> <ul class="kh_longline_list"> <li>Currently, genetic mutation information that can guide medical decisions exists for only a small number of diseases and conditions &mdash; but this is expanding rapidly.</li> <li>It will take time for doctors to learn about and become comfortable with using this genetic information as a new tool for patient care.</li> <li>There is some concern about privacy issues and how the genetic information might be used (for example, could a health plan charge a higher premium for or deny coverage to a person who is found to have a gene mutation that might increase his/her risk for getting a disease?).</li> <li>Many genetic tests are very expensive and health insurers are reluctant to cover them unless there is clear evidence that doing the test will benefit the patient. However, as the use of genetic testing becomes more common &mdash; and better (and cheaper) tests are developed &mdash; the price for tests should decrease.</li> </ul> <h2>Should My Child Have Molecular Genetic Testing?</h2> <p>It depends on your child's condition, and whether there is a genetic test available that's helpful for making a decision about your child's diagnosis or treatment. If you have questions about this, ask your child's doctor.&nbsp;Genetic testing is most appropriately performed with the help of genetic counselors or geneticists, who are trained in the evaluation of molecular tests and their results and implications.</p>Medicina de precisiónLa medicina de precisión, es una forma de guiar la prevención, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de enfermedades basadas en los genes individuales de una persona, su medio ambiente y su estilo de vida.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/parents/precision-medicine-esp.html/5d827f86-9402-4596-b660-a9d789c6e44f
All About GeneticsRead the basics about genetics, including how certain illnesses, or increased risks for certain illnesses, pass from generation to generation.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/about-genetics.html/0a35cfc5-5d12-46d2-b0a9-ffae83cace5c
Gene Therapy and ChildrenGene therapy carries the promise of cures for many diseases and for types of medical treatment most of us would not have thought possible.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/gene-therapy.html/a62423ca-6e1e-4a80-b100-ddeec746b2b5
Genetic TestingAdvances in genetic testing help doctors diagnose and treat certain illnesses. The type of test done depends on which condition a doctor checks for.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/genetics.html/cbe49a95-6833-41f4-881a-c26287c4a33c
PharmacogenomicsPharmacogenomics is the science of understanding the role of genes in determining the response a person may have when given a drug. https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/pharmacogenomics.html/93c4409f-cc13-41ec-bbc4-6866e6043637
The Basics on Genes and Genetic DisordersGenes play an important role in how we look and act, and even in whether we get sick. This article gives the lowdown on genes, genetic disorders, and new research into gene therapy.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/genes-genetic-disorders.html/04ae1bf5-9cc5-4057-96a8-ed7dae4b4891
What Is Epigenetics?Epigenetics - the idea that environmental factors can change the health not only of the people who are exposed to them, but also the health of their descendants - is something we'll be hearing more about.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/about-epigenetics.html/c0800bc5-d9ed-473a-b1a6-1c747d8403f8
kh:age-allAgesOrAgeAgnostickh:clinicalDesignation-geneticskh:genre-articlekh:primaryClinicalDesignation-generalPediatricsMedicinehttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/system/medicine/32be9cd2-a1c3-4c93-ba8f-8c6c871fdb24