Pneumoniaenparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/P-infectPneumonia-enHD-AR2.jpgPneumonia is a lung infection that can be caused by different types of germs, most commonly viruses. Read about symptoms and treatment.pneumonia, infection of the lungs, rashes, dehydration, germs, viral pneumonia, chest x-rays, bluish or gray lips or fingernails, oxygen levels, contagiousness, upper respiratory tract infections, chills, coughing, rapid breathing, wheezing, vomiting, chest pain, abdominal pain, decreased activity, loss of appetite, mycoplasma, chlamydia, conjunctivitis, pertussis, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rsv, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, haemophilus influenzae, pneumocystis carinii, tuberculosis, penumococcal conjugate vaccine, hiv and aids, keeping my children healthy, pulmonology, pulmonary, respiratory, CD1Infectious Disease, CD1Pulmonology03/22/200012/05/201912/05/2019Ryan J. Brogan, DO12/01/201704648784-6e52-4b69-8d5c-9525558b42e5https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/pneumonia.html/<h3>What Is Pneumonia?</h3> <p>Pneumonia is an infection of the <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/lungs.html/">lungs</a>. The air sacs in the lungs (called alveoli) fill up with pus and other fluid. This makes it hard for oxygen to reach the bloodstream.</p> <p>Someone with pneumonia may have a fever, cough, or trouble breathing.</p> <h3>What Are the Signs &amp; Symptoms of Pneumonia?</h3> <p>Symptoms vary depending on a person's age and what caused the pneumonia, but can include:</p> <ul> <li>very fast breathing (in some cases, this is the only symptom)</li> <li>breathing with grunting or wheezing sounds</li> <li>working hard to breathe; this can include flaring of the nostrils, belly breathing, or movement of the muscles between the ribs</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/fever.html/">fever</a></li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/childs-cough.html/">cough</a></li> <li>stuffy nose</li> <li>shaking chills</li> <li>vomiting</li> <li>chest pain</li> <li>belly pain (because a child is coughing and working hard to breathe)</li> <li>less activity</li> <li>loss of appetite (in older kids) or poor feeding (in infants), which may lead to <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/dehydration.html/">dehydration</a></li> <li>in extreme cases, bluish or gray color of the lips and fingernails</li> </ul> <p>If the pneumonia is in the lower part of the lungs near the abdomen, a person might have a fever and belly pain or vomiting with no breathing problems.</p> <h3>What Causes Pneumonia?</h3> <p>Pneumonia is caused by a variety of <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/germs.html/">germs</a> (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites). Most cases, though, are caused by <strong>viruses</strong>. These include <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/adenovirus.html/">adenoviruses</a>, rhinovirus, <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/flu.html/">influenza virus (flu)</a>, <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/rsv.html/">respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)</a>, and parainfluenza virus (which also can cause&nbsp;<a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/croup.html/">croup</a>).</p> <p>Often, pneumonia begins after an upper respiratory tract infection (an infection of the nose and throat), with symptoms starting after 2 or 3 days of a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cold.html/">cold</a> or <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/sore-throat-sheet.html/">sore throat</a>. It then moves to the lungs. Fluid, white blood cells, and debris start to gather in the air spaces of the lungs and block the smooth passage of air, making it harder for the lungs to work well.</p> <p>Kids with <strong>pneumonia caused by bacteria</strong> usually become sick fairly quickly, starting with a sudden high fever and unusually fast breathing.</p> <p>Kids with <strong>pneumonia caused by viruses</strong> probably will have symptoms that appear more gradually and are less severe, though wheezing can be more common.</p> <p>Some symptoms give important clues about which germ is causing the pneumonia. For example:</p> <ul class="kh_longline_list"> <li>In older kids and teens, pneumonia due to <em>Mycoplasma</em> (also called <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/walking-pneumonia.html/">walking pneumonia</a>) is very common. It causes a sore throat, headache, and rash in addition to the usual symptoms of pneumonia.</li> <li>In babies, pneumonia due to <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/chlamydia.html/">chlamydia</a> may cause <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/conjunctivitis.html/">conjunctivitis (pinkeye)</a> with only mild illness and no fever.</li> <li>When pneumonia is due to <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/whooping-cough.html/">whooping cough (pertussis)</a>, a child may have long coughing spells, turn blue from lack of air, or make the classic "whoop" sound when trying to take a breath. Fortunately, the <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/dtap-vaccine.html/">pertussis vaccine</a> can help protect kids against whooping cough.</li> </ul> <p>The length of time between exposure to the germ and when someone starts feeling sick varies, depending on which germ caused the pneumonia (for instance, 4 to 6 days for RSV, but just 18 to 72 hours for the flu).</p> <h3>How Is Pneumonia Diagnosed?</h3> <p>Doctors usually make a pneumonia diagnosis after an exam. They'll check a child's appearance, breathing pattern, and vital signs, and listen to the lungs for abnormal sounds. They might order a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/xray-exam-chest.html/">chest X-ray</a>&nbsp;or blood tests, but neither are necessary to make the diagnosis.</p> <h3>How Is Pneumonia Treated?</h3> <p>In most cases, pneumonia is caused by a virus that does <strong>not</strong> require antibiotics. Pneumonia caused by bacteria is treated with antibiotics taken by mouth at home. The type of antibiotic used depends on the type of bacteria thought to have caused the pneumonia.</p> <p>Antiviral medicine is now available too, but is reserved for the flu when found early in the course of illness.</p> <p>Children might need treatment in a hospital if the pneumonia causes a lasting high fever, breathing problems, or if they:</p> <ul> <li>need oxygen therapy</li> <li>have a lung infection that may have spread to the bloodstream</li> <li>have a chronic illness that affects the immune system</li> <li>are vomiting so much that they cannot take medicine by mouth</li> <li>keep getting pneumonia</li> <li>might have whooping cough</li> </ul> <p>Hospital treatment can include <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/intravenous-line.html/">intravenous (IV)</a> antibiotics (given into a vein) and respiratory therapy (breathing treatments). More severe cases might be treated in the intensive care unit (ICU).</p> <div class="rs_skip rs_preserve"><!-- TinyMCE Fix --> <script src="//familysurvey.org/misc/javascript/js_apps/video/kh-video-metadata.js" type="text/javascript"></script> <script src="//familysurvey.org/misc/javascript/js_apps/video/kh-video-controller.js" type="text/javascript"></script> <script src="//familysurvey.org/misc/javascript/js_apps/video/single-well-child-antibiotics-en.js" type="text/javascript"></script> </div> <h3>How Can I Help My Child?</h3> <p>Anyone with pneumonia needs to get plenty of rest and drink lots of fluids while the body works to fight the infection.</p> <p>If your child has bacterial pneumonia and the doctor prescribed antibiotics, give the medicine on schedule for as long as directed. This will help your child recover faster and help prevent the infection from spreading to others in the family. For wheezing, the doctor might recommend using a nebulizer or an inhaler.</p> <p>Ask the doctor before you use a medicine to treat your child's cough. Cough suppressants stop the lungs from clearing mucus, which isn't helpful for pneumonia. Over-the-counter cough and cold medicines are not recommended for <em>any</em> kids under 6 years old.</p> <p>Take your <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/take-temperature.html/">child's temperature</a> at least once each morning and each evening. Call the doctor if it goes above 102&deg;F (38.9&deg;C) in an older infant or child, or above 100.4&deg;F (38&deg;C) in a baby under 6 months old.</p> <p>Check your child's lips and fingernails to make sure they are rosy and pink. Call your doctor if they are bluish or gray, which is a sign that the lungs are not getting enough oxygen.</p> <h3>How Long Does Pneumonia Last?</h3> <p>With treatment, most types of bacterial pneumonia are cured in 1&ndash;2 weeks. Walking pneumonia and viral pneumonia may take 4&ndash;6 weeks to go away completely.</p> <h3>Is Pneumonia Contagious?</h3> <p>In general, pneumonia is not contagious, but the upper respiratory viruses and bacteria that lead to it are. When these germs are in fluid from the mouth or nose of someone who's infected, that person can spread the illness through coughs and sneezes.</p> <p>Sharing drinking glasses and eating utensils, and touching the used tissues or handkerchiefs of an infected person also can spread pneumonia. So it's best to keep kids away from anyone with symptoms (stuffy or runny nose, sore throat, cough, etc.) of a respiratory infection.</p> <h3>Can Pneumonia Be Prevented?</h3> <p>Some types of pneumonia can be prevented by <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/vaccine.html/">vaccines</a>. Kids usually get routine immunizations against <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hib-vaccine.html/"><em>Haemophilus influenzae</em></a> pneumococcus and whooping cough beginning at 2 months of age.</p> <p>The <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/flu-vaccine.html/">flu vaccine</a> is recommended for all healthy kids ages 6 months through 19 years, but especially for kids with chronic illnesses such as heart or lung disorders or asthma.</p> <p>Because they're at higher risk for serious complications, babies <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/born-early.html/">born early</a> may get treatments that temporarily protect against RSV because it can lead to pneumonia in younger kids.</p> <p>Doctors may give antibiotics to prevent pneumonia in kids who have been exposed to someone with certain types of pneumonia, such as whooping cough. Those with <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hiv.html/">HIV infection</a> might get antibiotics to prevent pneumonia caused by <em>Pneumocystis jirovecii</em>.</p> <p>If someone in your home has a respiratory infection or throat infection, keep their drinking glasses and eating utensils separate from those of other family members, and <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hand-washing.html/">wash your hands</a> often, especially if you're handling used tissues or dirty handkerchiefs.</p> <h3>When Should I Call the Doctor?</h3> <p>Call your doctor right away if your child has any of the signs of pneumonia, but especially if he or she:</p> <ul> <li>has trouble breathing or is breathing too fast</li> <li>has a bluish or gray color to the fingernails or lips</li> <li>has a fever of 102&deg;F (38.9&deg;C), or above 100.4&deg;F (38&deg;C) in babies younger than 6 months old</li> </ul>Neumonía“Neumonía” es un término general que engloba las infecciones de pulmón, que pueden estar provocadas por diversos microorganismos, como virus, bacterias, hongos y parásitos.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/parents/pneumonia-esp.html/c8ad299e-071e-466b-aea8-d6c8927d7cde
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)Babies who are born prematurely or who experience respiratory problems shortly after birth are at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), sometimes called chronic lung disease.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/bpd.html/8a1b6269-a56f-4d11-8f03-0193baf4ccdf
CoughingCoughs are a common symptom, but most aren't a sign of a serious condition. Learn about different coughs, how to help your child feel better, and when to call your doctor.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/childs-cough.html/68554637-7469-4d09-8ba7-5bb9211fcd47
CroupCroup often causes kids to have a loud cough that sounds like a seal barking. Most cases of croup are caused by viruses, are mild, and can be treated at home.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/croup.html/74193534-9eb3-4424-b13d-f36ab6db0fc4
Does My Child Need an Antibiotic? (Video)Antibiotics are powerful medicines that can help kids feel better -- but only when they have certain illnesses. Find out if an antibiotic is right for your child. https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/antibiotic-video.html/70b4af23-70d6-4f1d-8a7f-8db8de0c537c
FeversFevers happen when the body's internal "thermostat" raises the body temperature above normal. This is often the body's way of fighting infections.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/fever.html/42ab5a5d-1c03-493e-acf5-0ac569d1b946
Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b)Hib disease can cause serious illnesses like meningitis and pneumonia. To protect kids from this bacterial infection, they should receive the Hib vaccine as infants.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hib.html/040f5330-9f46-4892-b1c7-f5afda521a90
Lungs and Respiratory SystemBy the time we're 70 years old, we will have taken at least 600 million breaths. All of this breathing couldn't happen without the respiratory system.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/lungs.html/6fe380c0-fe47-47a4-ba19-7e0944585a61
PneumoniaPneumonia is a common lung infection that can usually be treated without a hospital stay.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/pneumonia.html/7b679cf8-e8b0-4029-b996-34126292e231
Respiratory Syncytial VirusRespiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory illness in young children. Learn how to recognize the signs and symptoms of this contagious infection.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/rsv.html/c2c86da2-f08c-4d9a-b6c2-22d4d117778a
Strep ThroatStrep throat is a common cause of sore throat in kids and teens. It usually requires treatment with antibiotics, but improves in a few days.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/strep-throat.html/4504e91d-3bbd-4d1a-beb8-516fc25df480
The Flu (Influenza)Flu symptoms tend to come on quickly and are worse than the sneezing and stuffiness of a cold. The flu is very contagious. Find out what to do in this article for parents. https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/flu.html/dfdd8061-bafc-4f1f-97dd-884d29a5f6e3
Walking PneumoniaMany kids with this milder version of pneumonia feel well enough to go to school. But it's important to keep kids home until after treatment kicks in and symptoms improve.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/walking-pneumonia.html/3fee2d59-629a-4619-9a8b-5e6f8ba5824b
Whooping Cough (Pertussis)Pertussis is characterized by severe coughing spells that end in a whooping sound when the person breathes in. It can be prevented with the pertussis vaccine, part of the DTaP immunization.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/whooping-cough.html/41856ee8-683f-4cf5-93f1-fc31a91cb873
Your Child's Immunizations: Hib VaccineFind out when and why your child needs to get this vaccine.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hib-vaccine.html/ebeb6938-c21c-4494-8576-7e26f8f7ca67
kh:age-allAgesOrAgeAgnostickh:clinicalDesignation-infectiousDiseasekh:genre-articlekh:primaryClinicalDesignation-pulmonologyLung & Respiratory Infectionshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/infections/lung/478becae-e035-4b39-86c3-967217981556Treatmenthttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/flu-center/flu-center-treatment/a8a69e78-b177-47c4-90b4-7552b3c847a7