Lymphatic Malformationsenparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/Lymphatic_Malformations__enHD_2.jpgA lymphatic malformation is a clump of lymph vessels that form a growing, jumbled, spongy cluster. They're unusual growths, but are not cancerous.Lymphatic Malformations, lymphangiomas, lymph, lymphatic, mass in the head or neck, lymphatic vessels, cystic hygroma, lymphatic vacular malformations, vascular, veins, vessels, lymphatic vessels, vesicles, blebs, LMs, LM, lymph vessels, radiology, interventional radiology, sclerotherapy, ablate, ablation, masses, overgrowth, noonan, chyle, cysts, what is a lymphatic malformation?, lymphatic malformation in kids, lymphatic malformation in children, lymphatic malformation in child; lymphatic malformation treatment09/06/201702/13/202002/13/2020Craig M. Johnson, DO04/04/20189d41e9da-f047-47dc-b01d-22bd27690292https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/lymphatic-malformations.html/<h3>What Are Lymphatic Malformations?</h3> <p>A lymphatic malformation is a clump of <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/spleen-lymphatic.html/">lymph</a> vessels that form a growing, jumbled, spongy cluster.</p> <p>Lymphatic malformations are masses (unusual growths), but they are benign (not cancerous).</p> <h3>What Happens in Lymphatic Malformations?</h3> <p>The lymphatic (lim-FAT-ik) system is a network of tubes that collects lymph (LIMF). This clear, pale yellow fluid drains out of blood vessels all over the body. The <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/spleen-lymphatic.html/">lymphatic system</a> returns the lymph to the bloodstream. Lymphatic malformations grow because the lymph in their vessels can't drain out well. This makes them swell, which is known as a <strong>flare</strong>.</p> <p>Lymphatic malformations also grow because they contain fragile malformed veins in their walls that bleed easily. The lymphatic malformation can fill with blood. The pooling lymph or blood stretches the vessels and cysts, making the lymphatic malformation grow larger. If it's close to the skin surface, it can look bruised.</p> <p>As a lymphatic malformation grows, it may put pressure on nearby body parts, such as the eyes, trachea (windpipe), or blood vessels. Lymphatic malformations may form inside skin, fat, connective tissue , joints, organs, or bones. They can form anywhere in the body but the brain, and are most common in the head and neck area.</p> <p>There are two main types of lymphatic malformations:</p> <ul> <li><strong>microcystic lymphatic malformations</strong> are spongy and have small vessels and tiny cysts.</li> <li><strong>macrocystic lymphatic malformations</strong> (also called <strong>cystic hygromas</strong> or <strong>lymphangiomas</strong>) have large, stretched vessels and cysts filled with lymph, blood from internal bleeding, or both.</li> </ul> <p><img class="center" title="" src="https://kidshealth.org/EN/images/illustrations/lymphaticMalform_a_enIL.png" alt="Illustration: Lymphatic Malformation" /></p> <h3>What Are the Signs &amp; Symptoms of Lymphatic Malformations?</h3> <p>A lymphatic malformation usually appears as a growing, spongy-feeling lump. A child can have more than one lymphatic malformation, but they are usually in the same area of the body.</p> <p>The skin over lymphatic malformations often has small bubbles, called <strong>vesicles</strong> (VESS-ih-kuls). These look like tiny blisters. The fluid in them starts out clear and colorless, but will turn dark red if blood leaks into it. Less commonly, the vesicles are filled with milky fluid called <strong>chyle</strong> (KYE-ul).</p> <p>A child with a lymphatic malformation may have:</p> <ul> <li>overgrowth and swelling in affected areas (lips, tongue, jaws, cheeks, arms, legs, fingers, or toes)</li> <li>pain and swelling of the lymphatic malformation</li> <li>a tendency to injure the lymphatic malformation, causing bleeding, which can happen with very mild trauma or even with no known trauma</li> </ul> <p>Some symptoms are related to the area of the body affected:</p> <p>Tongue, windpipe, and mouth lymphatic malformations may cause problems with:</p> <ul> <li>speaking</li> <li>breathing</li> <li>swallowing</li> <li>feeding</li> </ul> <p>Orbit (eye socket) lymphatic malformations may cause:</p> <ul> <li>double vision</li> <li>bulging of the eye</li> </ul> <p>Chest lymphatic malformations may cause:</p> <ul> <li>wheezing</li> <li>chest pain or pressure</li> <li>trouble breathing</li> <li>narrowing of the airways to the lungs</li> </ul> <p>Lymphatic malformations in the gastrointestinal tract (gut) or pelvis can cause:</p> <ul> <li>bleeding from the rectum</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/constipation.html/">constipation</a> (trouble pooping)</li> <li>bladder obstruction (trouble peeing)</li> <li>infections</li> <li>protein loss due to poor absorption and loss of lymph into the gut</li> </ul> <p>Lymphatic malformations of the genitourinary tract (kidney and bladder) can cause:</p> <ul> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hematuria.html/">blood in the pee</a></li> <li>pain when peeing</li> </ul> <p>Lymphatic malformations in bones can cause:</p> <ul> <li>bone overgrowth</li> <li>bone loss</li> <li>rarely, a fracture</li> </ul> <h3>What Causes Lymphatic Malformations?</h3> <p>Lymphatic malformations form very early in pregnancy, but doctors don't know why. Most lymphatic malformations are thought to happen at random during the baby's development. They're not caused by anything a woman did or didn't do during her pregnancy.</p> <p>Some of the more severe lymphatic malformations do have <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/about-genetics.html/">genetic</a> mutations identified. But they're also thought to happen randomly and are not inherited.</p> <p>Lymphatic malformations are more common in children with:</p> <ul> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/down-syndrome.html/">Down syndrome</a></li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/turner.html/">Turner syndrome</a></li> <li>an overgrowth syndrome (genetic disorders that cause an unusual increase in the size of the body or a body part)</li> <li>Noonan syndrome</li> </ul> <h3>How Are Lymphatic Malformations Diagnosed?</h3> <p>Lymphatic malformations may be seen on a prenatal (before birth) <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/prenatal-ultrasound.html/">ultrasound</a> scan. A lymphatic malformation not found earlier might be found when the baby is born.</p> <p>Most significant lymphatic malformations are seen by age 2, after lymph fluid has built up and stretched the vessels of the lymphatic malformation or there is bleeding into it. But some aren't found until the teen years or later.</p> <p>To be sure the lump is a lymphatic malformation and not another kind of tumor , doctors will do an exam and order imaging tests such as:</p> <ul> <li>ultrasound scan</li> <li>X-ray</li> <li>computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/mri.html/">MRI</a> scan</li> </ul> <h3>How Are Lymphatic Malformations Treated?</h3> <p>Pediatric specialists often work together as a team to treat a child's lymphatic malformation.</p> <p>The doctors involved may include:</p> <ul> <li>pediatricians</li> <li>vascular and <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/intvnl-radiology.html/">interventional radiologists</a></li> <li>hematologists/oncologists</li> <li>pathologists</li> <li>genetic specialists</li> <li>orthopedic surgeons</li> <li>pediatric medical specialists (pulmonology, cardiology, etc.)</li> <li>pediatric surgeons</li> <li>neurosurgeons</li> <li>ophthalmologists (eye surgeons)</li> <li>otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat surgeons)</li> <li>speech pathologists</li> </ul> <p>The team will study the lymphatic malformation's type and location and consider the child's age, health, and other medical problems. They'll decide on a treatment that has the fewest side effects and risks, and offers the best results.</p> <p>Things to know about treatment options:</p> <ul class="kh_longline_list"> <li>Most lymphatic malformations that appear suddenly will decrease in size and pain without treatment, but very rarely go away on their own.</li> <li>Incision (cutting into) and draining the lymph from a lymphatic malformation&nbsp;can temporarily reduce its size. This is usually only done for diagnosis or to treat an infection.</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/sclerotherapy.html/">Sclerotherapy</a> (injection of a medicine into the lymphatic malformation) makes the lymph vessels collapse and scar together, shrinking the lymphatic malformation.</li> <li>Surgical removal is sometimes the best choice when the lymphatic malformation&nbsp;affects organs or interferes with speech, swallowing, or appearance. <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/endoscopic.html/">Minimally invasive surgery</a> may be used, so the surgical scars are very small.</li> <li>Laser therapy may be used for lymphatic malformations in the skin or mouth.</li> <li>Radiofrequency ablation is sometimes used to treat lymphatic malformations in the tongue. A needle inserted into the lymphatic malformation sends out radio waves that ablate (destroy) the malformation.</li> <li>Medicines are often used for large lymphatic malformations. These are low-risk, generally well-tolerated, and shrink most lymphatic malformations over time.</li> </ul> <p>Antibiotic treatment and drainage of the lymphatic malformation may be needed if it gets infected, which is rare.</p> <h3>What Else Should I Know?</h3> <p>Lymphatic malformations can grow back, so kids might need to have more than one treatment.</p> <p>Kids may feel shy or embarrassed about how a lymphatic malformation looks. Be sure to support your child emotionally. It can help to find a local support group where other families can talk about what works for them. Ask your child's care team for recommendations. You also can look online at:</p> <ul> <li><a href="https://birthmark.org/birthmark/lymphatic-malformation-lymphangiomas/">The Vascular Birthmarks Foundation</a></li> </ul> <p>Talking to a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/finding-therapist.html/">therapist</a> can help kids and teens if they're feeling sad or upset about a lymphatic malformation or its treatment.</p>Malformaciones linfáticasUna malformación linfática es un cúmulo de vasos linfáticos que forman una masa esponjosa que va creciendo. Las malformaciones linfáticas también se conocen como linfangiomas.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/parents/lymphatic-malformations-esp.html/dfe6cd2b-f58c-4c00-810c-e1440ff7d8a1
Arteriovenous Malformations An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between an artery and a vein. Large AVMs or multiple AVMs usually needs medical treatment.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/arteriovenous-malformations.html/df73e390-8d76-402e-9219-8f43f8a7fdb9
CLOVES SyndromeCLOVES syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder that causes vascular, skin, spinal, and bone or joint abnormalities.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cloves-syndrome.html/0bfa9c17-b66f-4268-94cd-5b5f29fd7e88
Down SyndromeDown syndrome is a condition in which extra genetic material causes delays in the way a child develops, both physically and mentally.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/down-syndrome.html/91566c16-0cdc-4e7c-bed0-f724d3f3d557
HemangiomasA hemangioma is a growth of tangled blood vessels. Most hemangiomas grow larger for several months, then shrink slowly. Some will require treatment.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hemangiomas.html/70accfce-1b1a-4220-9fee-c82f4601c69a
Noonan Syndrome Noonan syndrome is a condition that some babies are born with. It causes changes in the face and chest, and usually includes heart problems.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/noonan-syndrome.html/5e0e06a5-ddd6-4a24-8218-a6a31a55caff
SclerotherapySclerotherapy is a procedure in which medicine is injected into blood vessels or lymph vessels to make them close. It's used to treat vascular malformations.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/sclerotherapy.html/93061ebf-ebf3-4024-a3ae-3e39b43ad2e2
Spleen and Lymphatic SystemThe lymphatic system is an extensive drainage network that helps keep bodily fluid levels in balance and defends the body against infections.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/spleen-lymphatic.html/dd889801-28b2-45c0-95df-3b6ad5f12b46
Turner SyndromeGirls with Turner syndrome, a genetic condition, usually are shorter than average and infertile due to early loss of ovarian function. Early diagnosis and treatments can help most of them.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/turner.html/01266657-489e-4950-9570-87755272ae9b
Venous Malformations A venous malformation (VM) is a place in the body where veins haven't grown the right way. VMs can be difficult to treat.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/venous-malformations.html/8d09d5c3-704c-4815-ab68-0161ee369be5
What Is Interventional Radiology (IR)?Interventional radiology (IR) is a way for doctors to treat problems like vascular anomalies and tumors.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/intvnl-radiology.html/fd207990-831e-4754-b2b8-1cc6d5cd7829
kh:age-allAgesOrAgeAgnostickh:clinicalDesignation-generalPediatricskh:genre-articlekh:primaryClinicalDesignation-radiologyAndMedicalImagingHeart & Blood Vesselshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/medical/heart/e9ef0549-4392-4778-974d-753019ce4b8bhttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/illustrations/lymphaticMalform_a_enIL.png