Kidneys and Urinary Tractenparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/P-kidneyBB-enHD-AR1.gifThe bean-shaped kidneys, each about the size of a child's fist, are essential to our health. Their most important role is to filter blood and produce urine.kidneys, urinary tracts, utis, urethra, bladder, nephrologists, nephrology, filtering, urines, toxins, renin, erythropoietin, diabetes, urine tests, metabolism, lupus, diabetes, blood pressures, hypertensions, dialysis, kidney transplants, one kidney, renal, nephritis, glomerulus, ureters, urea, wilms tumors, turner syndrome, circumcisions, urinate, pee, e coli, vur, reflux, scarring, kidney failure, poison, kidney stones, strep, cancers, pediatrics, nephrotic, minimal change disease, bacterial infections, vaginal adhesions, labial adhesions, CD1Nephrology, CD1Urology, CD1Urologic Surgery, CD1Nephrology, CD1Urology, CD1Urologic Surgery, CD1Robotic-Assisted Surgery in Urology07/06/200009/20/201809/02/2019Larissa Hirsch, MD09/03/20180cbf3444-1a45-4512-9af9-bc76e5592336https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/kidneys-urinary.html/<h3>What Are the Kidneys and Urinary Tract?</h3> <p>The urinary tract is one of the systems that our bodies use to get rid of waste products. The kidneys are the part of the urinary tract that makes urine (pee). Urine has salts, toxins, and water that need to be filtered out of the blood. After the kidneys make urine, it leaves the body using the rest of the urinary tract as a pathway.</p> <h3>What Are the Parts of the Urinary Tract?</h3> <p>People usually have two kidneys, but can live a normal, healthy life with just one. The kidneys are under the ribcage in the back, one on each side. Each adult kidney is about the size of a fist.</p> <p>Each kidney has an outer layer called the <strong>cortex</strong>, which contains filtering units. The center part of the kidney, the <strong>medulla</strong> (meh-DUH-luh), has fan-shaped structures called <strong>pyramids</strong>. These drain urine into cup-shaped tubes called <strong>calyxes</strong> (KAY-luh-seez).</p> <p>From the calyxes, pee travels out of the kidneys through the <strong>ureters</strong> (YUR-uh-ters) to be stored in the <strong>bladder</strong> (a muscular sac in the lower belly). When a person urinates, the pee exits the bladder and goes out of the body through the <strong>urethra</strong> (yoo-REE-thruh), another tube-like structure. The male urethra ends at the tip of the penis; the female urethra ends just above the vaginal opening.</p> <h3>What Do the Kidneys Do?</h3> <p>Kidneys have many jobs, from filtering <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/blood.html/">blood</a> and making urine to keeping bones healthy and making a hormone that controls the production of red blood cells. The kidneys also help regulate blood pressure, the level of salts in the blood, and the acid-base balance (the pH) of the blood. All these jobs make the kidneys essential to keeping the body working as it should.</p> <h3>How Do the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Work?</h3> <p>Blood travels to each kidney through the <strong>renal artery</strong>. The artery enters the kidney at the <strong>hilus</strong> (HY-luss), the indentation in middle of the kidney that gives it its bean shape. The artery then branches so blood can get to the <strong>nephrons</strong> (NEH-fronz) &mdash; 1 million tiny filtering units in each kidney that remove the harmful substances from the blood.</p> <p>Each of the nephrons contain a filter called the <strong>glomerulus</strong> (gluh-MER-yuh-lus). The fluid that is filtered out from the blood then travels down a tiny tube-like structure called a <strong>tubule</strong> (TOO-byool). The tubule adjusts the level of salts, water, and wastes that will leave the body in pee. Filtered blood leaves the kidney through the renal vein and flows back to the <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/heart.html/">heart</a>.</p> <p>Pee leaves the kidneys and travels through the ureters to the bladder. The bladder expands as it fills. When the bladder is full, nerve endings in its wall send messages to the brain. When a person needs to pee, the bladder walls tighten and a ring-like muscle that guards the exit from the bladder to the urethra, called the <strong>sphincter</strong> (SFINK-tur), relaxes. This lets pee go into the urethra and out of the body.</p> <h3>What Can Help Keep the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Healthy?</h3> <p>To help keep your child's kidneys and urinary tract healthy:</p> <ul class="kh_longline_list"> <li>Encourage plenty of exercise.</li> <li>Offer a nutritious diet.</li> <li>Help your child stay <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/dehydration.html/">hydrated</a>.</li> <li>Teach your daughter to wipe from front to back after pooping so germs don't get into the urethra.</li> <li>Avoid bubble baths, sitting in the tub after shampoo has been used, and scented soaps. These can irritate the urethra.</li> <li>Your child should wear cotton underwear.</li> <li>Kids should change out of wet bathing suits promptly.</li> <li>Go for regular medical checkups.</li> <li>Talk to the doctor before giving your child any supplements or herbal treatments.</li> <li>Let the doctor know about any family history of kidney problems, diabetes, or high blood pressure.</li> <li>Let the doctor know if your child has any swelling or puffiness, has pain with peeing, needs to pee often, has foamy urine or <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hematuria.html/">blood in the urine</a>, or is <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/constipation.html/">constipated</a>.</li> </ul> <div class="rs_skip rs_preserve"><!-- TinyMCE Fix --> <script src="//familysurvey.org/misc/javascript/js_apps/kh-slideshows/kh-slider.js" type="text/javascript"></script> <script src="//familysurvey.org/misc/javascript/js_apps/kh-slideshows/bodybasics-flash-kidneys-en.js" type="text/javascript"></script> </div>Los riñones y las vías urinariasNuestros cuerpos producen varios tipos de productos de deshecho, como el sudor, el dióxido de carbono, las heces (cacas o deposiciones) y la orina (pis o pipí). Estos productos de deshecho salen del organismo de distintas formas. El sudor se elimina a través de los poros de la piel. El vapor de agua y el dióxido de carbono se exhalan desde los pulmones. Y la parte no digerida de los alimentos se transforma en heces dentro de los intestinos y se excreta en forma sólida a través de las deposiciones.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/parents/kidneys-urinary-esp.html/22add26a-fac4-4f18-89ee-f172bd2d6aa7
GlomerulonephritisGlomerulonephritis happens when tiny filtering units in the kidneys stop working properly. Most cases get better on their own or with treatment.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/glomerulonephritis.html/18feaf09-b1c5-40e8-8bdb-ffa78db188b9
Kidney DiseaseSometimes, the kidneys can't do their job properly. In teens, kidney disease is usually due to infections, structural issues, glomerulonephritis, or nephrotic syndrome. https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/kidney.html/4f21e885-14a9-4b12-a514-66998f93043c
Kidney Diseases in ChildhoodThe kidneys play a critical role in health. When something goes wrong, it could indicate a kidney disease. What are kidney diseases, and how can they be treated?https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/kidney-diseases-childhood.html/ce75e066-a9e8-498f-97e8-6459154b9748
Kidney StonesKidney stones mostly happen to adults, but sometimes kids and teens can get them. Find out what kidney stones are, how to treat them, and ways to help prevent them.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/kidney-stones.html/715fc04b-38e7-4f13-b64b-a934afe04724
Kidney TransplantIf the kidneys stop working, a person will need either dialysis or a transplant. Get the facts on kidney transplant in this article for teens.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/kidney-transplant.html/0eaed509-b5fe-430b-839e-8ae36bf4971b
Kidneys and Urinary TractThe kidneys perform several functions that are essential to health, the most important of which are to filter blood and produce urine.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/kidneys.html/d0d97a22-7118-4082-acae-02dd5319be95
Nephrotic SyndromeNephrotic syndrome happens when tiny filtering units in the kidneys stop working properly. This can cause weight gain and other symptoms. Most kids eventually outgrow it.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/nephrotic-syndrome.html/b5a6b27d-3f05-405f-b91b-909cac637dc0
Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related ConditionsRecurrent urinary tract infections can cause kidney damage if left untreated, especially in kids under age 6. Here's how to recognize the symptom of UTIs and get help for your child.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/recurrent-uti-infections.html/879c8981-5f68-4043-9679-090edaf99dc9
Renal Tubular AcidosisThis kidney problem causes acid levels in the blood to become too high, causing fatigue, muscle weakness, and other kidney problems. The condition is usually treatable.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/renal-tubular-acidosis.html/b3a16019-6ee3-45f1-bcdb-e430f17ee086
Ultrasound: BladderDoctors order bladder ultrasounds when there's a concern about bladder problems, such as difficulty urinating or daytime wetting.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/ultrasound-bladder.html/62b31da4-cda0-493f-a393-338578c464d9
Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder)A renal ultrasound makes images of your child's kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Doctors may order this test if they suspect kidney damage, cysts, tumors, kidney stones, or complications from urinary tract infections.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/renal-ultrasound.html/05b3083e-733a-40c6-9fd9-5a38877ccc4f
Urinary Tract InfectionsA urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common reasons that teens visit a doctor. Learn about the symptoms of UTIs, how they're treated, and more in this article.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/uti.html/a97f6174-4629-4696-b5bc-a461856cdd95
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in kids. They're easy to treat and usually clear up in a week or so.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/urinary.html/6a6f9f52-f903-4360-877f-dd35d531d84f
Urine Test: CalciumA urine calcium test can help monitor or determine the cause of kidney stones and other kidney diseases, or detect overactivity or underactivity in the parathyroid glands.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/test-calcium.html/cc750832-0ced-4022-851a-01a1f9928b02
Urine Test: CreatinineLow levels of creatinine in the urine may point to a kidney disease, certain muscular and neuromuscular disorders, or an obstruction of the urinary tract.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/test-creatinine.html/586c349c-6288-462d-9100-d3a28ed3a21f
Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine RatioThe microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio test is most commonly used to screen for kidney problems in teens with diabetes. It may also be used to monitor kidney function in kids and teens who have a kidney disease.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/test-mtc-ratio.html/554b1e12-bf11-4df3-a35f-e4ce2aaa9a23
Urine Test: ProteinThe urine protein test is most commonly used to screen for kidney disease and also can help monitor kidney function.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/test-protein.html/c3e958a1-f860-4e9b-85d5-e2ad8f28b6ac
Urine TestsIs your child having a urine culture or urinalysis performed? Find out why urine tests are performed, and what to expect when the doctor orders them.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/labtest7.html/d8a510e5-7cb2-4868-9e5e-02f65dfb9f45
Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)This problem with the urinary tract causes urine to flow backward from the bladder to the kidneys. Most cases can be treated effectively, and many kids outgrow the condition.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/vesicoureteral-reflux.html/78339e78-b7bf-4215-900c-bbc7ffef06ab
When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney DiseaseParents of kids who have a chronic kidney disease often worry about what might happen next, how their child feels, and what treatments are likely to be involved. Find answers here.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/chronic-kidney-disease.html/9edcb2c0-d2af-4fd7-88e9-48c0ff7a2f55
When Your Child Needs a Kidney TransplantIf your child needs a kidney transplant, you're probably feeling lots of emotions. Fortunately, many kids who undergo kidney transplants go on to live normal, healthy lives.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/kidney-transplant.html/453b2488-cfff-4e14-bdbd-818b9906f828
Your KidneysYou need at least one kidney to live. Find out why in this article for kids.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/kidneys.html/e8b731bd-422b-4032-952a-5f2223257f23
Your Urinary SystemYou pee every day, but what makes it happen? Find out in this article for kids about the urinary system.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/pee.html/6715ddc0-cd8e-428a-afd4-e3e3db22267f
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