Infantile Spasmsenparents spasms (IS) is a seizure disorder in babies. The spasms usually go away by age 4, but many babies with IS will have other kinds of epilepsy later.West syndrome, Infantile spasms, spasms, epilepsy, epileptic, seizures, siezures, infant spasms, infant epilepsy, neurologist, neurology, ketogenic diet, hypsarrhythmia, startled, startles, startle, colic, reflux, spastic, 08/22/201710/12/201709/02/2019Harry T. Chugani, MD09/16/2017690f06dd-3b84-48f3-8549-838fb4c9bdcd<h3>What Are Infantile Spasms?</h3> <p>Infantile spasms (IS) is a seizure disorder in babies. The <a href="">seizures</a> (or spasms) make muscles in the arms and legs stiff and bend the baby's head forward. They look very much like a startle.</p> <p>Babies also might have slowed development or loss of skills (like babbling, sitting, or crawling). Although the spasms usually go away by the time a child is 4 years old, many babies with IS will have other kinds of <a href="">epilepsy</a> later in life.</p> <h3>What Do Infantile Spasms Look Like?</h3> <p>Spasms start suddenly and last a second or two. They often come one after another in a cluster that lasts several minutes. They happen most often just after waking. They're often mistaken for <a href="">colic</a>, <a href="">reflux</a>, or hiccupping.</p> <p>A baby having a spasm might have:</p> <ul> <li>the head bent forward with arms flung out and the knees pulled into the body (described as "jackknife")</li> <li>the head bent back with the arms and legs straightened</li> <li>small movements in the neck or other parts of the body</li> </ul> <h3>What Causes Infantile Spasms?</h3> <p>Infantile spasms (also called <strong>West syndrome</strong>) can be caused by brain malformations, infections, brain injury, or abnormal blood vessels in the brain. IS also can happen in babies with certain metabolic and genetic disorders. In rare cases, a baby's infantile spasms are caused by vitamin B6 deficiency.</p> <p>Sometimes, the cause isn't known. However, more and more gene mutations are being linked to infantile spasms.</p> <h3>How Are Infantile Spasms Diagnosed?</h3> <p>Infantile spasms are diagnosed by a pediatric neurologist (a doctor who specializes in brain, spine and nervous system problems). Testing may include:</p> <ul> <li>blood tests and urine tests (to look for infections or illnesses)</li> <li><a href="">EEG</a>, or electroencephalography (to see brain waves/electrical activity in the brain). A particular EEG finding called "hypsarrhythmia" often confirms the diagnosis, but not every child with infantile spasms will have this.</li> <li>VEEG, or video electroencephalography (EEG with video recording)</li> <li><a href="">CAT scan</a>, <a href="">MRI</a>, and <a href="">PET/MRI</a> scans to look inside the brain</li> </ul> <h3>How Are Infantile Spasms Treated?</h3> <p>Infantile spasms usually are treated with seizure medicines or steroids. If medicines don't control the spasms, a special diet, such as the <a href="">ketogenic diet</a>, might help. Sometimes, doctors may recommend <a href="">surgery</a>.</p> <h3>How Can I Help My Child?</h3> <p>To help your child, follow the doctor's instructions to:</p> <ul> <li>Give any medicines as prescribed.</li> <li>Go for developmental assessments and therapies.</li> <li>Make and keep all follow-up appointments.</li> </ul>Espasmos infantilesLos espasmos infantiles son un trastorno convulsivo que afecta a algunos bebés. Aunque los espasmos suelen desaparecer cuando el niño cumple 4 años, muchos bebés con este trastorno prestarán otros tipos de epilepsia más adelante.
Childhood Absence Epilepsy (CAE)Kids with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) have seizures where they "blank out" for a few seconds. Most kids will outgrow CAE.
EpilepsySeizures are a common symptom of epilepsy, a condition that affects millions of people worldwide. Learn all about epilepsy, including what to do if you see someone having a seizure.
Epilepsy SurgeryEpilepsy surgery is an operation done on the brain to reduce or stop seizures.
Intractable EpilepsyIntractable epilepsy is when a child's seizures can't be controlled by medicines. Doctors may recommend surgery or other treatments for intractable seizures.
Ketogenic DietA ketogenic diet is a strict high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that can reduce, and sometimes stop, seizures.
SeizuresSeizures are caused by a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain. Find out what you need to know about seizures and what to do if your child has one.
Temporal Lobe EpilepsyKids with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have seizures that start in one of the temporal lobes of the brain. Seizures usually get better with medicine.
kh:age-allAgesOrAgeAgnostickh:clinicalDesignation-neurologykh:genre-articlekh:primaryClinicalDesignation-neurologyBrain & Nervous System