Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)enparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/KH_generic_header_05_2.jpgHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of liver cancer. It's treated by a health care team of specialists in many areas.hepatocellular carcinoma, liver cancer, liver tumor, tumor in the liver, pediatric cancer, cancer in young kids, metastasize, tumor, tumer, chemotherapy, liver transplant, transplants, organ transplants04/25/201811/13/201911/13/2019Howard M. Katzenstein, MD and Allison Aguado, MD10/01/2019881a4d18-ff26-46d1-bf93-7a71f39956dchttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hepatocellular-carcinoma.html/<h3>What Is Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)?</h3> <p>Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of liver <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer.html/">cancer</a>. It is the second most common liver cancer in children.</p> <h3>What Are the Signs &amp; Symptoms of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)?</h3> <p>Hepatocellular (hep-uh-toe-SEL-yuh-ler) carcinoma often affects teenagers, but also can happen in younger children, especially those who have been treated for an underlying liver disease.</p> <p>A child who has it might have these symptoms:</p> <ul> <li>a large belly that sticks out</li> <li>belly pain, most often on the right side</li> <li>belly mass (something solid in the belly that can be felt through the skin)</li> <li>jaundice (yellow skin or eyes)</li> <li>back pain</li> <li>a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/fever.html/">fever</a></li> <li>itching</li> <li>loss of appetite</li> <li>weight loss</li> <li>nausea and <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/vomit.html/">vomiting</a>&nbsp;</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/anemia.html/">anemia</a> (low red blood cell count)</li> </ul> <h3>What Causes Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)?</h3> <p>Doctors don't know the exact cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. Children who have viral infections or other conditions that cause liver inflammation (swelling and irritation), like viral <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hepatitis.html/">hepatitis</a>, get HCC more often than other children.</p> <p>Other less common causes or triggers include:</p> <ul> <li>hereditary tyrosinemia (when a protein called tyrosine builds up in the body)</li> <li>hereditary hemochromatosis (when excess iron is stored in the liver)</li> <li>Wilson disease</li> <li>progressive hepatic cholestasis (when the flow of bile from the liver is reduced)</li> </ul> <h3>How Is Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Diagnosed?</h3> <p>When a child has hepatocellular carcinoma, the doctor will do an exam. Tests done may include:</p> <ul> <li>blood tests, including <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/labtest6.html/">liver</a> and kidney function tests and an alpha fetoprotein (AFP) test (liver damage and some cancers can raise the level of this protein in the blood)</li> <li>imaging tests: <ul> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/ultrasound-abdomen.html/">ultrasound</a></li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/xray-abdomen.html/">X-rays</a></li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cat-scan-abdomen.html/">CAT scan</a></li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/mri.html/">MRI</a></li> </ul> </li> <li>a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/biopsy.html/">biopsy</a>: removing a piece of tumor tissue for examination or testing</li> </ul> <h3>How Is Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Treated?</h3> <p>Doctors usually treat hepatocellular carcinoma with a combination of surgery and <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/chemotherapy.html/">chemotherapy</a>. If possible, children with cancer should go to a medical center specializing in the treatment of pediatric cancers.</p> <p>Treatment depends on:</p> <ul> <li>the child's age</li> <li>the size of the tumor</li> <li>whether there is one or many tumors in the liver</li> <li>whether the cancer has spread from the liver</li> </ul> <h4>Treatment Options</h4> <p><strong>Surgery</strong> is the most important part of treatment, but many HCC tumors cannot be removed easily. A <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/liver-transplant.html/">liver transplant</a> may be considered because the whole liver needs to be removed to get the entire tumor out.</p> <p><strong>Chemotherapy</strong> is often used but is not very effective in shrinking HCC.</p> <p><a href="https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/radioembolization.html" onclick="window.open(this.href, 'windyWindow', 'width=800,height=600,status=no,scrollbars=yes,toolbar=no,resizable=yes,location=yes'); return false;"><strong>Radioembolization (or Y90)</strong></a> is a type of therapy that delivers high-dose radiation directly to the liver tumor through the bloodstream. The radiologist inserts a tiny catheter (plastic tube) in the groin and passes it to the artery closest to the tumor. This procedure protects much of the normal liver tissue from the effects of Y90.</p> <p>Y90 can be used as primary therapy in liver tumors that don't respond well to chemotherapy. It's also used when the tumors come back or don't shrink enough for surgery.</p> <p><strong>Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)</strong>, which sends chemotherapy particles directly to the tumor.</p> <p><strong>Tumor ablation</strong>, which is when doctors destroy tumors by using small needles to heat or cool them.</p> <h3>Who Treats Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)?</h3> <p>HCC is treated by a health care team, including specialists in:</p> <ul> <li>oncology (cancer)/hematology (blood diseases)</li> <li>surgery</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/intvnl-radiology.html/">interventional radiology</a>&nbsp;(image-guided <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/endoscopic.html/">minimally invasive</a> procedures)</li> <li>gastroenterology (digestive tract) and hepatology (liver)</li> <li>pathology (diagnosing diseases by examining body tissues, fluids and organs)</li> <li>genetics (genetic counseling and testing)</li> <li>radiology (medical imaging)</li> <li>nutrition</li> </ul> <h3>Looking Ahead</h3> <p>Hepatocellular carcinoma is challenging to treat, even before it spreads beyond the liver. Clinical trials are underway to help find better treatments in children and adults.</p> <p>After treatment, a child will have frequent checkups with the care team especially because there is a possibility that the cancer may return.</p> <p>Having a child being treated for cancer can feel overwhelming for any family. But you're not alone. To find support, talk to your child's doctor or a hospital social worker. Many resources are available to help you get through this difficult time.</p> <p>You also can find information and support online at:</p> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.cancer.gov/types/liver/patient/child-liver-treatment-pdq">National Cancer Institute</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.acco.org/hepatoblastoma/">American Childhood Cancer Organization</a></li> <li><a href="https://liverfoundation.org/">American Liver Foundation</a></li> </ul>Carcinoma hepatocelularUn carcinoma hepatocelular es un tipo de cáncer de hígado. Se trata del segundo tipo de cáncer hepático más frecuente en los niños. https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/parents/hepatocellular-carcinoma-esp.html/15415d18-7fd6-4a1e-80ef-d76a1a5b73bc
Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function PanelLiver function tests can help doctors see if the liver has been damaged. They also can help diagnose infections and monitor medications that can cause liver-related side effects.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/labtest6.html/9e5113bf-7bd7-4a50-91b8-c8bc1cac7161
HepatoblastomaHepatoblastoma is a rare type of cancer that affects the liver but rarely spreads beyond it. Most cases are in children younger than 3. https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hepatoblastoma.html/957c6476-0139-4721-ab32-d9d75d2265b2
Liver TumorsTumors happen when cells form a mass or growth. Liver tumors can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/liver-tumors.html/ef61411a-f830-4846-a20f-56ac5e49076b
Radioembolization (TARE-Y90) for Liver TumorsRadioembolization is a procedure used to treat some kinds of liver tumors. A radioactive material works on the tumor, not the healthy tissue around it.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/radioembolization.html/8ff3de84-a008-42c9-bd79-cb927e15da97
Rhabdoid Tumor of the LiverA rhabdoid tumor of the liver is a cancer that often spreads quickly to other parts of the body. Most of these very rare tumors happen in babies and toddlers. https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/rhabdoid-liver.html/2ff74968-6e31-49ea-83fc-ec89958441f3
Undifferentiated Embryonal Sarcoma of the Liver (UESL)Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is a rare kind of liver cancer that happens mostly in children.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/liver-uesl.html/2c7a12bb-8bd6-4fc3-8c54-4b8da6dc6cfc
When Your Child Needs a Liver TransplantIf your child needs a liver transplant, you're probably feeling lots of emotions. Fortunately, most kids who have liver transplants go on to live normal, healthy lives.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/liver-transplant.html/74340ca2-6b5b-4b7e-85f5-4db45aee1e9a
Words to Know (Cancer Glossary)Check out our cancer glossary for lots of easy-to-read definitions.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-glossary.html/b23569e7-7ecf-4e78-8aad-108e0ab04842
kh:age-allAgesOrAgeAgnostickh:clinicalDesignation-oncologykh:genre-articlekh:primaryClinicalDesignation-oncologyCancer & Tumorshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/medical/cancer/088d4c52-cd61-4cca-af46-82de410d892aCancer Basicshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-center/cancer-basics/9ea0efb4-12d0-4d11-8b46-923deeb7b806