Gene Changes (Mutations)enparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/KH_generic_header_02_2.jpgA gene mutation is a change in one or more genes. Some mutations can lead to genetic disorders or illnesses.genetic, gene, mutation, mutations, genetic mutation, mutashun, genetic mutations, gene mutations, mutated genes, genes, geens, jeans, changed genes, inherited conditions, inherited diseases, how are diseases inherited, runs in families, run in families, hereditary, change in genetics, chromosomes, cromasome, genes, inherited, congenital, gene pool, jeans, geens, inherited diseases, cromosomes, genetic testing, genetic tests, prenatal testing, trisomy, down syndrome, retarded, retardation, intellectual disability, DNA, nucleotides, down's,deoxyribonucleic acid, hemofilia, hemophilia, thalessemias, anemias, sickle cell, sickle, sickel, monosomy, hemangiomas, cleft, translocations, inversions, Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, chromosome 4, Cri-du-chat syndrome, chromosome 5, DiGeorge syndrome, chromosome 22, Williams syndrome, sex chromosomes, X chromosomes, Y chromosomes, oncogenes, x linked, cancer-susceptibility genes, Parkinson's disease, genetic code, DNA, dna, RNA, rna, deoxyribonucleic acid, autosomes, microdeletions, fragile x, phenylketonuria (PKU), cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, achondroplasia, CD1Genetic Disorders, CD1Muscular Dystrophy, CD1Sickle Cell, CD1MAP, CD1Skeletal Dysplasia, CD1Genetic Disorders, CD1Muscular Dystrophy, CD1Sickle Cell, CD1MAP, CD1Skeletal Dysplasia, CD1Down Syndrome, CD1Achondroplasia, CD1Campomelic Dysplasia, CD1Cartilage Hair Hypoplasia, CD1Diastrophic Dysplaisa, CD1Ellis-Van Creveld Dysplasia, CD1Hypochondroplasia, CD1Kniest Dysplasia, CD1Metatropic Dysplasia, CD1Morquio Syndrome, CD1Multipule Epiphyseal Dysplasia, CD1Primordial Dwarfism, CD1Pseudoachondroplasia, CD1Spondylo-Epiphyseal Dysplasia, CD1Thanatophoric Dysplasia02/10/202103/31/202103/31/2021Amy W. Anzilotti, MD03/15/2021ef39367a-70d9-4c0d-8b11-b9eae2d5f197https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/gene-mutations.html/<h3>What Is a Gene Mutation?</h3> <p>A gene mutation (myoo-TAY-shun) is a change in one or more genes. Some mutations can lead to genetic disorders or illnesses.</p> <h3>What Are Genes?</h3> <p>Genes are short sections of DNA. They determine our traits, which are things like hair color, height, body type, and other things that make a person unique. Genes also play a role in a person's risk for some diseases and health conditions. Each of us has about 24,000 different types of genes.</p> <h3>What Is DNA?</h3> <p>DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)&nbsp;is the carrier of all our genes. Each person gets one copy of DNA from their mother and one copy from their father. DNA creates a code using four chemicals called nucleotides (NEW-klee-uh-tydes). This code determines which genes a person has. DNA is located inside the chromosomes.</p> <h3>What Is a Chromosome?</h3> <p>A chromosome (KRO-muh-sohm) is an X-shaped thread-like structure in the body's cells. It contains DNA. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes.</p> <p><img class="center_this" title="Inside the cell is the chromosome, which unravels and shows the DNA. DNA is 2 strands connected with nucleotides. A gene is segment of DNA." src="https://kidshealth.org/EN/images/illustrations/gene_a_enIL.jpg" alt="Inside the cell is the chromosome, which unravels and shows the DNA. DNA is 2 strands connected with nucleotides. A gene is segment of DNA." /></p> <h3>What Causes a Gene Mutation?</h3> <p>A gene can mutate because of:</p> <ul> <li>a change in one or more nucleotides of DNA</li> <li>a change in many genes</li> <li>loss of one or more genes</li> <li>rearrangement of genes or whole chromosomes</li> </ul> <h3>Do Parents Pass Gene Mutations to Children?</h3> <p>If a parent carries a gene mutation in their egg or sperm, it can pass to their child. These hereditary (or inherited) mutations are in almost every cell of the person's body throughout their life. Hereditary mutations include <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cf.html/">cystic fibrosis</a>, <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hemophilia.html/">hemophilia</a>, and <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/sickle-cell-anemia.html/">sickle cell disease</a>.</p> <p>Other mutations can happen on their own during a person's life. These are called sporadic, spontaneous, or new mutations. They affect only some cells. Damage from <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/sun-safety.html/">the sun's ultraviolet radiation</a> or exposure to some types of chemicals can lead to new mutations. These mutations are not passed from parents to their children.</p> <h3>Do All Gene Mutations Cause Health Problems?</h3> <p>Most gene mutations have no effect on health. And the body can repair many mutations. Some mutations are even helpful. For example, people can have a mutation that protects them from heart disease or gives them harder bones.</p>Mutaciones genéticas (cambios genéticos)Una mutación genética es cuando ocurre un cambio en uno o más genes. Algunas mutaciones pueden provocar enfermedades o trastornos genéticos.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/parents/gene-mutations.html/4eeda8d3-9a4e-43ab-95ba-14ef122a9c9e
All About GeneticsRead the basics about genetics, including how certain illnesses, or increased risks for certain illnesses, pass from generation to generation.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/about-genetics.html/0a35cfc5-5d12-46d2-b0a9-ffae83cace5c
Gene Therapy and ChildrenGene therapy carries the promise of cures for many diseases and for types of medical treatment most of us would not have thought possible.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/gene-therapy.html/a62423ca-6e1e-4a80-b100-ddeec746b2b5
Genetic TestingAdvances in genetic testing help doctors diagnose and treat certain illnesses. The type of test done depends on which condition a doctor checks for.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/genetics.html/cbe49a95-6833-41f4-881a-c26287c4a33c
Prenatal Genetic CounselingGenetic counselors work with people who are either planning to have a baby or are pregnant to determine whether they carry the genes for certain inherited disorders. Find out more.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/genetic-counseling.html/ce3b2896-0a32-4c87-aa11-b2a7da9d790b
Sickle Cell DiseaseSickle cell disease is a blood disorder that makes red blood cells change shape and cause health problems. Find out how to help your child.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/sickle-cell-anemia.html/4b0a03a5-a1be-4cb9-ad8d-6fd5ae9faa0a
Sickle Cell TraitChildren who inherit one sickle cell gene have sickle cell trait. They usually don't get symptoms of sickle cell disease.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/sickle-cell-trait.html/daf4c7cf-a7c4-4180-88e1-344602188014
The Basics on Genes and Genetic DisordersGenes play an important role in how we look and act, and even in whether we get sick. This article gives the lowdown on genes, genetic disorders, and new research into gene therapy.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/genes-genetic-disorders.html/04ae1bf5-9cc5-4057-96a8-ed7dae4b4891
What Is Epigenetics?Epigenetics - the idea that environmental factors can change the health not only of the people who are exposed to them, but also the health of their descendants - is something we'll be hearing more about.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/about-epigenetics.html/c0800bc5-d9ed-473a-b1a6-1c747d8403f8
What Is a Gene?Why does one kid have green eyes while another kid's eyes are brown? It's all in the genes! Find out how genes work, what happens when there are problems with genes, and more.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/what-is-gene.html/94bc3da2-1fa1-4488-8a5c-70e18a4db97a
Will I Pass Sickle Cell Disease on to My Children?Find out what the experts say.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/sickle-cell-genes.html/55d2feaa-4e12-48c7-917d-8488d8cf914b
Word! ChromosomesYour body is made up of billions of cells, which are too small to see without a strong microscope.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/word-chromosomes.html/be7e93cc-e931-4ec4-b1e4-7ff937c6b60d
Word! GeneticsGenetics is the study of the way physical traits and characteristics get passed down from one generation to the next.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/word-genetics.html/5c28ec57-e3a0-47e7-8bd8-785cc88c0e0b
Word! HeredityIf people say you look like your parents, they're probably talking about heredity.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/word-heredity.html/71959fa4-f4c3-49bf-8c51-44863d27be3a
kh:age-allAgesOrAgeAgnostickh:clinicalDesignation-geneticskh:genre-articlekh:primaryClinicalDesignation-geneticsGenetic, Chromosomal & Metabolic Conditionshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/medical/genetic/d50d4cf8-0cb6-4a6b-8d58-1fe7996c491ehttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/illustrations/gene_a_enIL.jpg