Coarctation of the Aortaenparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/P-coarctation-enHD-AR1.jpgCoarctation of the aorta (COA) is a narrowing of the aorta, the major blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the body.coarctation, coarctation of the aorta, aorta, narrow blood vessel, heart, heart condition, heart problem, heart defect, heart surgery, heart operation, ventricles, what is coarctation?, what causes coarctation? fainting, faint, chest pain, shortness of breath, trouble breathing, dizzy, dizziness, high blood pressure, blood pressure, CD1Congenital Heart Defects, CD1Cardiac Catheterization, CD1Heart Surgery, CD1Congenital Heart Defects, CD1Cardiac Catheterization, CD1Heart Surgery, CD1Coarctation of the Aorta03/27/200602/19/201809/02/2019Steven B. Ritz, MD, MSEd01/01/2017c608c070-bf56-4f7e-97ed-025cfc1ca1a6https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/coa.html/<h3>What Is Coarctation of the Aorta?</h3> <p><strong>Coarctation of the aorta</strong> <strong>(COA)</strong> is a narrowing of the aorta, the major blood vessel that carries blood away from the <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/heart.html/">heart</a> to the body. This narrowing causes the&nbsp;left side of the heart to work harder to pump blood through the aorta.</p> <p>Sometimes the coarctation is minor and might not even cause symptoms. Other times, surgery or other procedures are needed to treat it.</p> <h3>What Causes COA?</h3> <p>Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital defect, meaning that a baby is born with it. Doctors aren't sure why some people develop COAs, but boys are almost twice as likely to have it than girls.<img class="right" title="" src="https://kidshealth.org/EN/images/illustrations/coarctationEstab_433x259_enIL.png" alt="Illustration: Healthy Heart" /></p> <p>In a baby with a coarctation, the aortic arch also might be smaller than usual (or <strong>hypoplastic</strong>).</p> <p>In many people, the defect shows up with other birth defects or conditions, such as a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/vsd.html/">ventricular septal defect</a> (a hole in the wall between the heart's left and right ventricles). It's also fairly common in girls born with <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/turner.html/">Turner syndrome</a>, a genetic disorder in which one of a girl's two X chromosomes is incomplete or missing.</p> <p>Usually, COA is found early. But some people aren't diagnosed until they're teens or even adults. In those cases, it's usually because the narrowing in the aorta is not severe enough to cause serious symptoms until then. But even people who don't have major symptoms need treatment because COA can eventually cause problems. The defect doesn't go away on its own.</p> <h3>What Are the Signs &amp; Symptoms of COA?</h3> <p>Abnormal blood pressure is often the first sign of COA. During a physical exam, a doctor may find that a child with a coarctation has higher blood pressure in the arms than in the legs. The doctor also might hear a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/murmurs.html/">heart murmur</a> or notice that the pulse in the groin is weak or hard to feel. Any person diagnosed with <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hypertension.html/">high blood pressure</a> should be checked for coarctation of the aorta.<img class="right" title="" src="https://kidshealth.org/EN/images/illustrations/coarctation_433x259_enIL.png" alt="Illustration: Coarctation of the Aorta" /></p> <p>Often, kids don't have any symptoms and the COA is discovered during a regular visit to the doctor. Kids who do have symptoms might have:</p> <ul> <li>cold legs and feet</li> <li>shortness of breath, especially when exercising</li> <li>chest pain</li> </ul> <h3>How Is Coarctation of the Aorta Diagnosed?</h3> <p>Doctors may refer a child with the signs or symptoms of COA to a pediatric cardiologist (a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating heart problems). The cardiologist will listen to the heart, feel the pulses, and check blood pressure.</p> <p>The cardiologist might order an <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/echo.html/"><strong>echocardiogram</strong></a> &mdash; a test that uses sound waves to create a picture of the heart and its circulation &mdash; and other tests that produce images of the heart, like a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/xray-exam-chest.html/">chest X-ray</a>, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) test, or a computerized tomography (CT) scan.</p> <p>COA must be treated quickly because it can cause high blood pressure and enlarge the heart. It also can cause dissection or rupture of the aorta, which can be fatal. Severe coarctations usually are found shortly after birth and repaired by surgery immediately.</p> <h3>How Is COA Treated?</h3> <p>Coarctation of the aorta can be repaired with surgery or other procedures. One of the most common ways to fix a coarctation is to remove the narrow section and reconnect the two ends of the aorta.</p> <p>In some cases, doctors may do a&nbsp;<strong>balloon dilation</strong>&nbsp;(also called&nbsp;<strong>balloon angioplasty</strong>). In this procedure, a tiny balloon is inserted into a blood vessel in the leg and a very thin wire is threaded up to the aorta, across the narrow area. When the balloon is inflated, the narrow area is widened. Then the balloon is removed. The cardiologist also may implant a <strong>stent</strong> to keep the area open after the procedure.</p> <h3>Looking Ahead</h3> <p>After the defect is fixed, most symptoms of COA disappear right away because the blockage that caused those symptoms is gone. Some people will still have high blood pressure for a while and might have to take medicine to control it.</p> <p>Kids and teens who have had surgery often feel completely better after a week or two, and those who have had the balloon treatment feel better even sooner, often within a couple of days.</p> <p>But doctors recommend that all patients avoid some physical activities &mdash; especially lifting heavy objects or sports that could cause an impact to the chest &mdash; for several weeks or months to give the body enough time to heal. Someone whose blood pressure remains high may have to continue to limit certain activities until the blood pressure lowers.</p> <p>Kids who've had a COA corrected will need to see their doctors regularly. Sometimes, the narrowing can return after surgery or balloon dilation treatment. Visits to the cardiologist every year or two after recovery will let the doctor monitor blood pressure and look for signs that COA could be returning.</p> <p>If your child has COA or has had a coarctation repaired, call the doctor if you see shortness of breath, chest pain, or fainting.</p> <p>Overall, kids who have had coarctation of the aorta can expect to lead a normal life after treatment.</p>Estrechamiento aórticoEl estrechamiento aórtico es una anomalía congénita, lo que significa que es algo con lo que se nace. A veces el estrechamiento es de escasa importante y no provoca ningún síntoma. Otras veces, se debe operar o bien aplicar otros procedimientos para corregirlo.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/parents/coa-esp.html/640cd107-92ab-4aac-b12a-1520f0887582
ArrhythmiasArrhythmias are abnormal heartbeats usually caused by an electrical "short circuit" in the heart. Many are minor and not a significant health threat, but others can indicate a more serious problem.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/arrhythmias.html/79184e00-417e-4ce4-a49b-2e89de1b1bd4
Atrial Septal DefectAtrial septal defect, or ASD, is a heart defect that some people are born with. Most ASDs are diagnosed and treated successfully with few or no complications.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/asd.html/109626e5-a3cb-4cba-a44d-947c86de3a81
Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)Atrial septal defect (ASD) — also known as a "hole in the heart" — is a type of congenital heart defect. Most ASDs are diagnosed and treated successfully.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/asd.html/2853e7be-1368-420f-bc8d-134350949604
Coarctation of the AortaWhen someone has coarctation of the aorta, that person's aorta (the major blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the body) is narrowed at some point.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/coa.html/85306f7f-1430-420d-9c1b-d7128470a85e
Congenital Heart DefectsHeart defects happen when there's a problem with a baby's heart development during pregnancy. Most heart defects can be treated during infancy.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/if-heart-defect.html/3dd23fa7-906f-4df9-8638-7400b77bed42
ECG (Electrocardiogram)Is your child scheduled to have an ECG? Find out how this test is performed and when you can expect the results.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/ekg.html/3b7f9c4b-b77a-4c15-b95a-6e44bc873875
EchocardiogramAn echocardiogram (also called an echo or cardiac ultrasound) uses sound waves to create pictures of the heart. It shows the structure of the heart and its parts and how well they’re working.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/echo.html/0f69bff6-a62b-42d0-85b4-152bf16c73e3
Heart MurmursEveryone's heart makes sounds, but some people have hearts that make more noise than others. Usually, however, these heart murmurs don't mean anything is wrong. Find out more about these mysterious murmurs.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/heart-murmurs.html/38913fec-cf94-4522-b3c2-985ecb0f0db6
Heart and Circulatory SystemThe heart and circulatory system (also called the cardiovascular system) make up the network that delivers blood to the body's tissues.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/heart.html/fde8120a-c54e-4e57-94b8-fb4375c29487
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a birth defect of a baby’s heart. The left side of the heart doesn’t grow as it should, making it smaller and weaker than normal. https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hypoplastic-heart.html/3f36bb72-0bef-42bc-b6de-c0fddf263c16
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that connects two major arteries before birth and normally closes after a baby is born. If it stays open, the result is a condition called patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/patent-ductus-arteriosus.html/1220a363-ed10-4541-94c6-ecb923902cd8
The HeartYour heart beats and sends oxygen throughout your entire body. Find out how it works and how heart problems can be fixed.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/center/heart-center.html/d4cb468c-ba42-454a-94bf-4173f8e15a69
Ventricular Septal DefectVentricular septal defect, or VSD, is a heart condition that a few teens can have. Find out what it is, how it happens, and what doctors do to correct it.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/vsd.html/840c44ec-78bd-4e55-ae74-37dcf68a1407
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)Ventricular septal defect (VSD) — also known as a "hole in the heart" — is a congenital heart defect. Most VSDs are diagnosed and treated successfully.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/vsd.html/21135699-6b44-43bd-96b1-618186631849
Your Heart & Circulatory SystemYour heart is a hard-working muscle. Find out more in this article for kids.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/heart.html/9730472f-2ef1-413a-92bf-041c533b9564
kh:age-allAgesOrAgeAgnostickh:clinicalDesignation-cardiologykh:genre-articlekh:primaryClinicalDesignation-cardiologyHeart & Blood Vesselshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/medical/heart/e9ef0549-4392-4778-974d-753019ce4b8bHeart Conditionshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hearthealth/heartconditions/ba7116cf-3c46-4896-8429-8be5c439795ehttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/illustrations/coarctationEstab_433x259_enIL.pnghttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/illustrations/coarctation_433x259_enIL.png