Osteosarcomaenparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/P_Osteosarcoma_enHD1.jpgOsteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Boys are more likely to have osteosarcoma than girls, and most cases of osteosarcoma involve the knee.my child has cancers, osteoblasts, retinoblastoma, li-fraumeni syndrome, inherited dna mutations, pain, swelling, legs, arms, broken bones, bone scan, amputations, limb-salvage surgery, low-grade osteosarcomas, high-grade osteosarcomas, intermediate-grade osteosarcomas, metastatic osteosarcomas, localized osteosarcomas, cancerous tumors, benign, malignant, chemotherapy, metastasizes, cancer is spreading, radiation therapy, surgery, tissue biopsy, medical tests, laboratory tests, hair loss, fevers, infections, genetic conditions, environmental toxins, oncology, orthopedics, orthopaedics, CD1Bone Tumors, CD1Oncology03/22/200011/26/201911/26/2019Eric S. Sandler, MD01/01/20172a1588a0-1908-44bb-9bd8-db63c33806cehttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-osteosarcoma.html/<p>Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer, and accounts for about 3% of cancers that happen&nbsp;in children. Although other types of cancer can eventually spread to parts of the skeleton, osteosarcoma is one of the few that actually begin in bones and sometimes spread (or metastasize) elsewhere, usually to the lungs or other bones.</p> <p>Because osteosarcoma usually develops from <strong>osteoblasts</strong> (the cells that make growing bone), it most commonly affects teens who are having a growth spurt. Boys are more likely to have osteosarcoma than girls, and most cases of osteosarcoma involve the knee.</p> <p>Most osteosarcomas arise from random and unpredictable errors in the DNA of growing bone cells during times of intense bone growth. There currently isn't an effective way to prevent this type of cancer. But with the proper diagnosis and treatment, most kids with osteosarcoma recover.</p> <h3>Risk for Childhood Osteosarcoma</h3> <p>Osteosarcoma is most often seen in teenage boys. Teens diagnosed with osteosarcoma tend to be tall for their age, suggesting that rapid bone growth may lead to the disease.</p> <p>Kids who have inherited one of the <strong>rare cancer syndromes</strong> also are at higher risk for osteosarcoma. These syndromes include <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/retinoblastoma.html/"><strong>retinoblastoma</strong></a> (a malignant tumor that develops in the retina, a part of the eye, usually in children younger than age 2) and <strong>Li-Fraumeni syndrome</strong> (a kind of inherited genetic mutation, or change in a person's genes).</p> <p>Because exposure to radiation is another trigger for DNA mutations, children who have received <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/radiation.html/">radiation treatments</a> for an earlier cancer are also at increased risk for osteosarcoma.</p> <h3>Symptoms of Osteosarcoma</h3> <p>The most common symptoms of osteosarcoma are pain and swelling in the leg or arm. It happens most often in the longer bones of the body &mdash; such as above or below the knee or in the upper arm near the shoulder.</p> <p>Pain may be worse during exercise or at night, and a lump or swelling may form in the affected area up to several weeks after the pain starts. Pain that often wakes the child up at night or pain at rest are of particular concern.</p> <p>In osteosarcoma of the leg, a child also may develop an unexplained limp. In some cases, the first sign of the disease is a broken arm or leg, which happens because the cancer has weakened the bone and made it vulnerable to a break.</p> <p>If your child or teen has any of these symptoms, it's important to see a doctor.</p> <h3>Diagnosing Osteosarcoma</h3> <p>To diagnose osteosarcoma, a doctor will do a physical exam, take a detailed <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/medhist.html/">medical history</a>, and order X-rays to detect any changes in bone structure.</p> <p>The doctor might order a CT scan or&nbsp;<a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/mri.html/"><strong>magnetic resonance imaging</strong></a> <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/mri.html/"><strong>(MRI)</strong></a> scan of the affected area, which will find the best area to <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/biopsy.html/">biopsy</a> and show whether osteosarcoma has spread from the bone into nearby muscles and fat. The biopsy can be done by cutting or scraping a small piece of the tissue or by withdrawing a sample of tissue with a needle and syringe.</p> <p>In a needle biopsy, doctors use a long hollow needle to take a sample of the tumor. Local anesthesia (medicine that numbs the area so the person won't feel pain) usually is used. Or the doctor may order an open biopsy, in which a portion of the tumor is removed in the operating room by a surgeon while the child is asleep during the procedure under general anesthesia.</p> <p><span style="font-size: 1em;">If a diagnosis of osteosarcoma is made, the doctor will order </span><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cat-scan-chest.html/" style="font-size: 1em;">CT chest scans</a><span style="font-size: 1em;"> as well as a bone scan and, sometimes, more MRI studies. After treatment starts, repeating these tests will help doctors see how well treatment is working and whether the cancer is continuing to spread.</span></p> <h3>Treating Osteosarcoma</h3> <p>Treatment of osteosarcoma in children includes <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/chemotherapy.html/">chemotherapy</a> (the use of medical drugs to kill cancer cells and shrink the cancer), followed by surgery (to remove cancerous cells or tumors), and then more chemo (to kill any remaining cancer cells and minimize chances of the cancer coming back).</p> <p>Surgery often can effectively remove bone cancer, while chemo can help eliminate remaining cancer cells in the body.</p> <h3>Surgical Treatment</h3> <p>Surgical treatments for osteosarcoma include either amputation or limb-salvage surgery.</p> <p>Currently, most teens with osteosarcomas involving an arm or leg can be treated with limb-salvage surgery instead of&nbsp;amputation. In limb-salvage surgery, the bone and muscle affected by the osteosarcoma are removed, leaving a gap in the bone that is filled by either a bone graft (usually from a bone bank) or more often a special metal prosthesis (artificial part). These can be matched to the size of the bone defect.</p> <p>The risk of infection and fracture is higher with bank bone replacement and therefore metal prostheses are more commonly used to reconstruct the bone after removal of the tumor.</p> <p>If the cancer has spread to the nerves and blood vessels surrounding the original tumor on the bone, amputation (removing part of a limb along with the osteosarcoma) is often the only choice.</p> <p>When osteosarcoma has spread to the lungs or elsewhere, surgery might be done to remove tumors in these distant locations.</p> <h3>Chemotherapy</h3> <p>Chemotherapy is usually given both before and after surgery. Chemo makes the tumor smaller, which makes surgery easier. It also gets rid of small pockets of cancer cells in the body, even cancer cells too small to appear on medical scans.</p> <p>A child or teen with osteosarcoma is given the chemotherapy drugs intravenously (through a vein). The drugs enter the bloodstream and work to kill cancer in parts of the body where the disease has spread, such as the lungs or other organs.</p> <h3>Short-Term and Long-Term Side Effects</h3> <p>Amputation carries its own short-term and long-term side effects. It usually takes at least 3 to 6 months until a young person learns to use a prosthetic (artificial) leg or arm, and this is just the beginning of long-term psychological and social rehabilitation.</p> <p>With limb salvage surgery, a person&nbsp;usually starts bending the knee or the affected body part almost immediately. A continuous passive motion (CPM) machine that continuously bends and straightens the knee may be used to improve motion for children with tumors around the knee.</p> <p><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/phys-therapy.html/">Physical therapy</a> and rehabilitation for 6 to 12 months after surgery helps a&nbsp;child walk, initially with a walker or crutches, then without any assistive devices.</p> <p>Early complications after surgery include infection and slow healing of the surgical wound. Also, the metal prosthetic device or the bank bone may need to be replaced as the body grows, although some prosthetics can be adjusted to fit as a child grows.</p> <p>Other late problems might include fracture of the bank bone or failure of the bank bone to heal to the child's bone, which might require more surgery.</p> <p>Many of the medicines used in chemotherapy also carry the risk of both short-term and long-term problems. <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/side-effects.html/">Short-term effects</a> include anemia, abnormal bleeding, and increased risk of infection due to destruction of the bone marrow, as well as kidney damage and menstrual irregularities.</p> <p>Some drugs carry a risk of bladder inflammation and bleeding into the urine, hearing loss, and liver damage. Others may cause heart and skin problems. Years after chemo for osteosarcoma, patients have an increased risk of developing other cancers.</p> <h3>Chances for a Cure</h3> <p>Survival rates of 60% to 80% are possible for osteosarcoma that hasn't spread beyond the tumor, depending on the success of chemotherapy.</p> <p>Osteosarcoma that has spread cannot always be treated as successfully. Also, a child whose osteosarcoma is in an arm or leg generally has a better prognosis than one whose disease involves the ribs, shoulder blades, spine, or pelvic bones.</p> <h3>New Treatments</h3> <p>Treatments are being developed and researched with new chemotherapy drugs. Other research is focused on the role certain growth factors might play in the development of osteosarcoma. This research may be used to develop new medicines to slow these growth factors as a way to treat the cancer.</p> <p>For osteosarcomas that cannot be removed surgically, studies are underway on treatments <span>that use new combinations of chemotherapy and localized radiation </span>that focuses more specifically on the tumor cells.</p>OsteosarcomaEl osteosarcoma es el tipo más frecuente de cáncer de huesos y representa aproximadamente un 3% de los cánceres que ocurren en la infancia. https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/parents/cancer-osteosarcoma-esp.html/5a7541fd-becb-4c66-9331-1a9dce1ec528
AnemiaAnemia happens when there aren't enough healthy red blood cells in the body. It can be caused by many things, including dietary problems, medical treatments, and inherited conditions.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/anemia.html/cadf550b-1db2-4772-9883-15e286b4dd16
Bones, Muscles, and JointsWithout bones, muscles, and joints, we couldn't stand, walk, run, or even sit. The musculoskeletal system supports our bodies, protects our organs from injury, and enables movement.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/bones-muscles-joints.html/53199934-b6d8-4854-8362-8b1dfc45c3f6
Cancer BasicsGet the basics on cancer and cancer treatments in this article.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/cancer.html/80768a55-ae26-44d5-82a5-675138383191
Cancer CenterFrom treatments and prevention to coping with the emotional aspects of cancer, the Cancer Center provides comprehensive information that parents need.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/center/cancer-center.html/92fcdf56-6935-42ac-a953-9eaf5f96fe2f
ChemotherapyChemotherapy is a big word for treatment with medicines used to help people who have cancer. This medicine kills the cancer cells that are making the person sick.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/chemo.html/8c03a04e-e4b5-47b3-8476-20d45619a51f
Childhood CancerDifferent kinds of childhood cancer have different signs, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. But today, most kids with cancer get better.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer.html/fb37fd75-d961-43c2-b963-ef6f60486038
Dealing With CancerIt's unusual for teens to have cancer, but it can happen. The good news is that most will survive and return to their everyday lives. Learn about how to cope if you or someone you know has cancer.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/teens/deal-with-cancer.html/7bc989fa-70dd-47d8-8c21-c5359f1dca38
Ewing SarcomaThis type of cancer mainly develops in the arms, legs, ribs, spinal column, and pelvis. Early diagnosis and treatment mean most kids have a good chance of recovery.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/ewings.html/d0f7ffae-48f0-4233-929e-5ec9f9c4b56a
Late Effects of Cancer and Cancer TreatmentLong-term side effects, or late effects, happen to many cancer survivors. With early diagnosis and proper follow-up care, most late effects can be treated or cured.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/late-effects.html/4f0ec7e2-6a0d-4c67-b4e7-f6e15de2816d
LeukemiaLeukemia refers to cancers of the white blood cells. With the proper treatment, the outlook for kids with leukemia is quite good.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-leukemia.html/d78fde51-319d-4c82-9476-e1e16f31c187
LymphomaLymphoma is cancer that begins in the body's lymphatic tissue. It's a common type of cancer in children, but most recover from it.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-lymphoma.html/0ad821a9-0139-4995-81e6-6c365a632f00
RetinoblastomaRetinoblastoma is a childhood cancer that affects the retina, the area of the eye responsible for sensing light and sending nerve signals to the brain.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/retinoblastoma.html/4a9d3ca6-8bf9-4d09-9bc7-8a28f61cd859
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)Rhabdomyosarcoma is a cancerous tumor that shows up in the body's soft tissues. With early diagnosis and timely treatment, most kids make a full recovery.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/rms.html/6a0ef07e-132c-48fb-8368-3081bfc72c45
Side Effects of Chemotherapy and RadiationSide effects of cancer treatment can include flu-like symptoms, hair loss, and blood clotting problems. After treatment ends, most side effects go away.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/side-effects.html/96a6771c-22f7-4b52-ae6b-6aa9487bc738
What Is Cancer?When kids get cancer, it can often be treated and cured. Find out more in this article for kids.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/cancer.html/ef4ba8b1-102b-48e8-bce2-e71e8c578610
kh:age-allAgesOrAgeAgnostickh:clinicalDesignation-oncologykh:genre-articlekh:primaryClinicalDesignation-oncologyCancer & Tumorshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/medical/cancer/088d4c52-cd61-4cca-af46-82de410d892aCancer Basicshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-center/cancer-basics/9ea0efb4-12d0-4d11-8b46-923deeb7b806