A to Z: Down Syndromeenparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/P-khAZDictionary-enHD-AR1.jpgLearn about Down syndrome (DS), a condition in which extra genetic material causes delays in the way a child develops, both mentally and physically.Down syndrome, DS, Trisomy 21, translocation, mosaicism, chromosomes, extra chromosome, chromosome 21, flat facial profile, slanted eyes, low muscle tone, small stature, developmental delays, congenital heart defects08/09/201303/29/201909/02/20196bf56856-980b-43c2-9e45-cc4b45439fcahttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/az-down.html/<p><em>May also be called: Trisomy 21</em></p> <p><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/down-syndrome.html/">Down syndrome (DS)</a>&nbsp;also called Trisomy 21, is a condition in which a person is born with an extra chromosome. Chromosomes contain hundreds, or even thousands, of genes. Genes carry the information that determines your traits (features or characteristics passed on to you from your parents). With Down syndrome, this extra chromosome causes delays in the way a child develops, mentally and physically.</p> <h3>More to Know</h3> <p>Normally a baby inherits genetic information from its parents in the form of 46 chromosomes: 23 from each parent. In most cases of Down syndrome, a child gets an extra number 21 chromosome &mdash; for a total of 47 chromosomes. This extra <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/about-genetics.html/">genetic</a> material is responsible for the physical features and developmental delays of Down syndrome.</p> <p>It is not known why Down syndrome happens, but scientists do know that women age 35 and older have a higher risk of having a child with the condition, and the risk increases with age.</p> <p>Some characteristic features of people with Down syndrome include a flat facial profile, an upward slant to the eyes, small stature, low muscle tone, and a single deep crease across the palm. Most children with DS reach developmental milestones later than other kids, but the degree to which a person is affected by DS can vary greatly.</p> <p>Most, but not all, people with DS will experience other significant health problems related to Down syndrome such as congenital <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/if-heart-defect.html/">heart defects</a>; respiratory, vision, and hearing problems; Alzheimer's disease; childhood <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-leukemia.html/">leukemia</a>; and thyroid disorders. Fortunately, many of these conditions are treatable.</p> <h3>Keep in Mind</h3> <p>People with Down syndrome have varying degrees of intellectual difficulties, but they are quite capable of developing loving relationships and have many talents to share. Medical advances also allow people with DS to live longer, fuller lives than ever before.</p> <p><em>All A to Z dictionary entries are regularly reviewed by KidsHealth medical experts.</em></p>
All About GeneticsRead the basics about genetics, including how certain illnesses, or increased risks for certain illnesses, pass from generation to generation.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/about-genetics.html/0a35cfc5-5d12-46d2-b0a9-ffae83cace5c
Disciplining Your Child With Special NeedsHere's how to set boundaries and communicate your expectations in a nurturing, loving way.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/discipline-special.html/2975b314-30ea-43e6-8ee9-1c71a2fa6e07
Down SyndromeDown syndrome is a condition in which extra genetic material causes delays in the way a child develops, both physically and mentally.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/down-syndrome.html/91566c16-0cdc-4e7c-bed0-f724d3f3d557
Financial Planning for Kids With Special NeedsThese 10 steps can help take the anxiety and worry out of your child's financial future and make sure that your child will be taken care of even after you're gone.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/needs-planning.html/7a324c71-2f03-404e-80de-e94bee1e2f04
Genetic TestingAdvances in genetic testing help doctors diagnose and treat certain illnesses. The type of test done depends on which condition a doctor checks for.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/genetics.html/cbe49a95-6833-41f4-881a-c26287c4a33c
Kids With Special NeedsLots of kids have special needs. Find out more in this article for kids.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/special-needs.html/59add500-bf3d-4e15-8611-87e58e291780
Prenatal Tests: FAQsEvery parent-to-be hopes for a healthy baby, but it can be hard not to worry. Find out what tests can keep you informed of your health — and your baby's — throughout pregnancy.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/prenatal-tests.html/eb018543-49a4-48cd-9ba3-42e027966273
Support for Parents of Kids With Special NeedsYou might have more on your plate than most parents, but it doesn't mean you have to do it all alone. Here's how to ask for help and avoid caregiver burnout.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/parents-support.html/1ec27c28-85eb-44dc-9057-ec0ea299847b
When Your Baby Has a Birth DefectIf your child has a birth defect, you don't have to go it alone - many people and resources are available to help you.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/baby-has-birth-defect.html/9c0573a4-68a2-4d7d-a868-26999e332361