Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)enparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/P-leukemiaAML-enHD-AR1.jpgAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) happens when the body makes too many immature white blood cells. Among kids with leukemia, 20% have this type. With treatment, most recover.acute myeloid leukemia, AML, cancers, leukemia, white blood cells, red blood cells, wbcs, platelets, granulocytes, monocytes, chemotherapy, neutropenia, stem cell transplant, clinical trials, childhood cancers, kids with cancer, chemo, chloromas, chemo, blood cancers, treating cancer, cancer center, lookemia, luekemia, lukemia, Down syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, Fanconi anemia, Noonan's syndrome, radiation,, CD1Blood Bone Marrow Transplant. CD1Oncology, CD1Leukemia06/05/200910/31/201809/02/2019Emi H. Caywood, MD10/19/20187f9a5d82-cefc-4e34-8942-a11c3d0397f9https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/aml.html/<h3>What Is Leukemia?</h3> <p><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-leukemia.html/">Leukemia</a> is a type of blood cancer that affects the body's white blood cells (WBCs).</p> <p>Normally, WBCs help fight infection and protect the body against disease. But in leukemia, white blood cells turn cancerous and don't work as they should. As more cancerous cells form in the blood and bone marrow (spongy tissue inside the bones), there's less room for healthy cells.</p> <h3>What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?</h3> <p>Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) happens when the body makes too many immature white blood cells. These cells, called myeloid blasts, can't mature into normal white blood cells.</p> <p>Because AML develops and gets worse quickly, prompt treatment is very important.</p> <p>Of kids who have leukemia, 20% have AML. Thanks to advances in therapy and clinical trials, the outlook for kids with AML has improved. With treatment, most are cured.</p> <h3>What Causes Acute Myeloid Leukemia?</h3> <p>The cause of acute myeloid leukemia is unknown. Some medical conditions can increase a child's risk of getting it. But just having a risk factor doesn't mean that a child will get AML.</p> <h3>Who Gets Acute Myeloid Leukemia?</h3> <p>Risks factors for kids include:</p> <ul> <li>having an identical twin who had leukemia before age 6</li> <li>being a fraternal twin or other sibling of a child with leukemia</li> <li>having an inherited genetic problems such as Li Fraumeni syndrome, <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/down-syndrome.html/">Down syndrome</a>, or Fanconi anemia</li> <li>having a non-inherited conditions such as myelodysplasia syndrome (a kind of pre-leukemia that stops blood cells from growing normally)</li> <li>having a condition called aplastic anemia (when the bone marrow doesn't make enough blood cells)</li> <li>prior <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/radiation.html/">radiation therapy</a> or <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/chemotherapy.html/">chemotherapy</a></li> </ul> <h3>What Are the Signs &amp; Symptoms of Acute Myeloid Leukemia?</h3> <p>Acute myeloid leukemia develops quickly, and the cancerous cells multiply fast. That's why AML tends to get worse quickly if it's not treated.</p> <p>The symptoms of all types of leukemia are generally the same and include:</p> <ul> <li>being very tired and weak</li> <li>swollen gums</li> <li>swollen lymph glands (or nodes)</li> <li>infections (like bronchitis or <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/tonsillitis.html/">tonsillitis</a>) that keep coming back</li> <li>a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/fever.html/">fever</a></li> <li>night sweats</li> <li>easy bruising or petechiae (tiny red spots on the skin caused by easy bleeding)</li> <li>bone and joint pain</li> <li>belly pain (caused by the build-up of cells in organs like the kidneys, liver, and spleen)</li> </ul> <h3>How Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia Diagnosed?</h3> <p>If a doctor suspects leukemia, a child may have these tests:</p> <ul> <li><strong>Blood tests.</strong> Tests such as a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/labtest5.html/">complete blood count</a>, <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/labtest6.html/">liver function</a> and kidney function panels, and blood chemistries can give important information about the number of normal blood cells in the body and how well the organs are working. The shapes and sizes of the blood cells are checked with a microscope.</li> <li><strong>Imaging studies.</strong>&nbsp;These may include an X-ray, CT scan, MRI, or ultrasound. These studies can see whether there's a mass of leukemia cells in the chest that could affect breathing or blood circulation. They also can help doctors rule out other possible causes of a child's symptoms.</li> <li><strong><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/aspiration.html/">Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy</a>.</strong> In this procedure, the doctor inserts a needle into a large bone, usually the hip, and removes a small amount of bone marrow. The lab does these tests on the bone marrow sample: <ul> <li><strong>Flow cytometry tests.</strong> Doctors carefully look at the cancer cells and figure out the type and subtype of the leukemia. This is important because treatment varies among different types of leukemia.</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/genetics.html/"><strong>Genetic tests</strong></a>. By looking carefully at the blood or bone marrow, doctors check for changes in the genes. This can help doctors figure out the best treatment.</li> </ul> </li> <li><strong><a class="kh_anchor">Lumbar puncture (spinal (tap)</a>.</strong> Doctors use a hollow needle to remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord) for exam in a lab.</li> </ul> <h3>How Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treated?</h3> <h4>Chemotherapy</h4> <p>Doctors usually treat children who have&nbsp;acute myeloid leukemia with <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/chemotherapy.html/">chemotherapy</a>. These special drugs kill cancer cells. Which drugs a child gets and in what combination depends on the subtype of AML and and whether the cancer cells have mutations (genetic changes). How the cancer responds to the initial treatment is also important in choosing the type of chemo.</p> <p>Doctors can give chemo:</p> <ul> <li>through a vein</li> <li>as an injection into a muscle</li> <li>by mouth in pill form</li> <li>with a spinal tap right into the cerebrospinal fluid, where cancerous WBCs can collect</li> </ul> <p>The treatment goal is <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/in-remission.html/"><strong>remission</strong></a>, which is when tests don't find any cancer cells in the body. Then, <strong>maintenance chemotherapy</strong> is used to keep the child in remission and prevent the cancer from coming back. The child will get maintenance chemo for 2 to 3 years.</p> <h4>Stem Cell Transplants</h4> <p>Kids who have an aggressive type of AML might need a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/stem-cells.html/">stem cell transplant</a>. Also called a bone marrow transplant, this involves:</p> <ul> <li>destroying cancer cells, normal bone marrow, and immune system cells with high-dose chemotherapy and/or <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/radiation.html/">radiation</a></li> <li>putting healthy donor stem cells back into the body</li> <li>rebuilding a healthy blood supply and immune system with the new stem cells&nbsp;</li> </ul> <h4>Clinical Trials</h4> <p>Clinical trials are research studies that offer promising new treatments not yet available to the public. Doctors will decide if a child is a good candidate for a clinical trial.</p> <h3>Looking Ahead</h3> <p>Learning that a child has cancer is upsetting, and cancer treatment can be stressful for any family.</p> <p>But remember, you're not alone. To find <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/caregivers.html/">support</a>, talk to your doctor or a hospital social worker. Many resources are available to help you get through this difficult time.</p>Leucemia mieloide agudaLa leucemia es un tipo de cáncer que afecta a los glóbulos blancos de la sangre. Gracias a los avances en los tratamientos y los ensayos clínicos, las perspectivas para los niños con leucemia mieloide aguda son esperanzadoras. Con tratamiento, la mayoría se curan.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/parents/aml-esp.html/9c286208-d3a7-45bd-8d8b-9c7141620f8d
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of childhood cancer. Because it develops and gets worse quickly, prompt treatment is very important. With treatment, most kids are cured.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/all.html/70e490be-1dce-4795-821e-c0ba28838828
Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone MarrowA bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy liquid part of the bone where blood cells are made.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/aspiration.html/5925b589-4487-4975-85f6-850dc8c31e07
Cancer CenterFrom treatments and prevention to coping with the emotional aspects of cancer, the Cancer Center provides comprehensive information that parents need.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/center/cancer-center.html/92fcdf56-6935-42ac-a953-9eaf5f96fe2f
Caring for a Seriously Ill ChildTaking care of a chronically ill child is one of the most draining and difficult tasks a parent can face. But support groups, social workers, and family friends often can help.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/seriously-ill.html/0a9f2c42-b8d4-492d-8b22-6e4af2eeec54
ChemotherapyChemotherapy is a big word for treatment with medicines used to help people who have cancer. This medicine kills the cancer cells that are making the person sick.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/chemo.html/8c03a04e-e4b5-47b3-8476-20d45619a51f
Childhood CancerDifferent kinds of childhood cancer have different signs, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. But today, most kids with cancer get better.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer.html/fb37fd75-d961-43c2-b963-ef6f60486038
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)While this type of blood cancer is more common in adults, it affects children, too. Thanks to advances in therapy, most kids with CML can be cured.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cml.html/0c391d33-30a9-4d60-a548-26b06f0efe01
Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)Learn about this rare type of cancer, which usually affects kids under 4 years old.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/jmml.html/5f3d296a-f5db-4b0d-9f35-70461657d102
LeukemiaLeukemia refers to cancers of the white blood cells. With the proper treatment, the outlook for kids with leukemia is quite good.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-leukemia.html/d78fde51-319d-4c82-9476-e1e16f31c187
NeutropeniaCertain cancers, or cancer treatment, can weaken the immune system, requiring a child to stay home to avoid exposure to germs. Here are ways to help your child make the best of it.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/neutropenia.html/e6c76bd6-23c1-4e34-98ac-1d737131d51f
Stem Cell TransplantsStem cells help rebuild a weakened immune system. Stem cell transplants are effective treatments for a wide range of diseases, including cancer.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/stem-cells.html/d98ca062-7d31-45ea-ae16-8fc40d54aea7
What Is Cancer?When kids get cancer, it can often be treated and cured. Find out more in this article for kids.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/cancer.html/ef4ba8b1-102b-48e8-bce2-e71e8c578610
kh:age-allAgesOrAgeAgnostickh:clinicalDesignation-oncologykh:genre-articlekh:primaryClinicalDesignation-oncologyCancer & Tumorshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/medical/cancer/088d4c52-cd61-4cca-af46-82de410d892aCancer Basicshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-center/cancer-basics/9ea0efb4-12d0-4d11-8b46-923deeb7b806