Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)enparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/P-leukemiaALL-enHD-AR1.jpgAcute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of childhood cancer. Because it develops and gets worse quickly, prompt treatment is very important. With treatment, most kids are cured.acute lymphoblastic leukemia, ALL, leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute lymphoid leukemia, blood cancer, bone marrow cancer, cancer of the blood, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, lymphoblasts, lymphoid, cancer, radiation, stem cell transplant, wbcs, cancers, chemo, chemotherapy, cancer treatments, luekemia, lukemia, lookemia, lymphoid leukemia, blood cancer, cancer of the blood cells, spinal taps, lumbar punctures, intrathecal chemotherapy, IT chemotherapy, stem cell transplants, bone marrow transplants, human leukocyte antigen, donors, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Down syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, neurofibromatosis, ataxia telangiectasia, Fanconi anemia, bone marrow aspiration, flow cytometry tests, chromosomal tests, CD1Blood Bone Marrow Transplant. CD1Oncology, CD1Leukemia06/05/200910/31/201809/02/2019Emi H. Caywood, MD10/15/201870e490be-1dce-4795-821e-c0ba28838828https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/all.html/<h3>What Is Leukemia?</h3> <p><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-leukemia.html/">Leukemia</a> is a type of blood <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer.html/">cancer</a> that affects the body's white blood cells (WBCs).</p> <p>White blood cells help fight infection and protect the body against disease. But in leukemia, some of the white blood cells turn cancerous and don't work as they should. As more cancerous cells form in the blood and bone marrow (spongy tissue inside the bones), there's less room for healthy cells.</p> <p>The different types of leukemia can be either <strong> acute </strong> (fast growing) or <strong> chronic </strong> (slow growing).</p> <h3>What Is Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)?</h3> <p>Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) happens when the body makes too many lymphoblasts (a type of white blood cell). It's the most common type of childhood cancer. ALL is also called <strong>acute lymphocytic leukemia </strong> and <strong>acute lymphoid leukemia</strong>.</p> <p>ALL can affect different types of lymphocytes (B-cells or T-cells). Doctors divide acute lymphoblastic leukemia into <strong>subtypes</strong> based on the type of lymphocytes involved. Most kids with ALL have a B-cell subtype.</p> <p>Acute lymphoblastic leukemia develops and gets worse quickly. So prompt diagnosis is very important. Thanks to advances in therapy and <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/clinical-trials.html/">clinical trials</a>, the outlook for kids with ALL is promising. With treatment, most are cured.</p> <h3>What Causes Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia?</h3> <p>The cause of acute lymphoblastic leukemia&nbsp;is not known. But some risk factors might increase a child's chances of developing it.</p> <h3>Who Gets Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia?</h3> <p>Acute lymphoblastic leukemia can happen in people of all ages, but is most common in kids ages 2 to 5.</p> <p>Risk factors for kids include:</p> <ul> <li>having an identical twin who had the illness before age 6</li> <li>being a fraternal twin and other sibling of a child with leukemia</li> <li>having an inherited genetic problem (such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome or&nbsp;<a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/down-syndrome.html/">Down syndrome</a>)</li> <li>getting medicines to suppress the <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/immune.html/">immune system</a> after an organ transplant</li> <li>exposure to X-rays before birth</li> <li>earlier radiation treatment or chemotherapy for other types of cancer</li> </ul> <h3>What Are the Signs &amp; Symptoms of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia?</h3> <p>All types of leukemia generally have the same symptoms. These include:</p> <ul> <li>being very tired, weak, or pale</li> <li>swollen lymph nodes</li> <li>infections (like bronchitis or tonsillitis) that keep coming back</li> <li>a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/fever.html/">fever</a></li> <li>night sweats</li> <li>easy bruising or petechiae (tiny red spots on the skin caused by easy bleeding)</li> <li>bone and joint pain</li> <li>belly pain (because cancerous blood cells build up in organs like the kidneys, liver, and spleen)</li> </ul> <h3>How Is Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Diagnosed?</h3> <p>Doctors use special tests when they suspect leukemia. These include:</p> <ul class="kh_longline_list"> <li><strong>Blood tests.</strong> Tests such as a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/labtest4.html/">complete blood count</a>, <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/labtest6.html/">liver</a> and kidney function panels, and blood chemistries can give important information about the number of normal blood cells and how well the organs are working. The shapes and sizes of the blood cells are checked with a microscope.</li> <li><strong>Imaging studies.</strong> These may include an X-ray, CT scan, MRI, or ultrasound. These can see whether there's a mass of leukemia cells in the chest that could affect breathing or blood circulation. They also can rule out other possible causes of a child's symptoms.</li> <li><strong><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/aspiration.html/">Bone marrow aspiration</a> and biopsy</strong>. The doctor puts a needle into a large bone, usually the hip, and removes a small amount of bone marrow. Then the lab does these tests on the bone marrow sample: <ul> <li><strong>Flow cytometry tests.</strong> Doctors look at the cancer cells and figure out the type and subtype of the leukemia. This is important because treatment differs depending on the type of leukemia.</li> <li><strong><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/genetics.html/">Genetic tests</a>.</strong> By looking at the blood or bone marrow, doctors check for changes in the genes. The changes can help doctors figure out the best treatment.</li> </ul> </li> <li><strong><a class="kh_anchor">Lumbar puncture (spinal tap)</a>.</strong> The doctor uses a hollow needle to remove a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord) for exam in a lab.</li> </ul> <h3>How Is Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treated?</h3> <h4>Chemotherapy</h4> <p>Doctors usually treat children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia with <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/chemotherapy.html/">chemotherapy</a>. These special drugs kill cancer cells. Which drugs a child gets and in what combination depends on the subtype of ALL and how aggressive the disease is. How the cancer responds to the initial treatment is also important in choosing the type of chemo.</p> <p>Doctors can give chemo:</p> <ul> <li>through a vein</li> <li>as an injection into a muscle</li> <li>by mouth in pill form</li> <li>with a spinal tap right into the cerebrospinal fluid, where cancerous WBCs can collect</li> </ul> <p>The treatment goal is <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/in-remission.html/"><strong>remission</strong></a>, which is when tests don't find any cancer cells in the body. Then, <strong>maintenance chemotherapy</strong> is used to keep the child in remission and prevent the cancer from coming back. The child will get maintenance chemo for 2 to 3 years.</p> <h4>Stem Cell Transplants</h4> <p>Kids who have an aggressive type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia might need a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/stem-cells.html/">stem cell transplant</a>. Also called a bone marrow transplant, this involves:</p> <ul> <li>destroying cancer cells, normal bone marrow, and immune system cells with high-dose chemotherapy and/or <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/radiation.html/">radiation</a></li> <li>putting healthy donor stem cells back into the body</li> <li>rebuilding a healthy blood supply and immune system with the new stem cells&nbsp;</li> </ul> <h4>Clinical Trials</h4> <p>Clinical trials are research studies that offer promising new treatments not yet available to the public. Doctors will decide if a child is a good candidate for a clinical trial.</p> <h3>Can Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Be Prevented?</h3> <p>In most cases, no one can control the things that trigger acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Studies are looking into the possibility that some environmental things may put a child at risk for ALL.</p> <p>Prenatal radiation exposure, such as X-rays, may trigger ALL in an unborn baby. Pregnant women and those who think they could be pregnant should tell their doctors before having tests or medical procedures that involve radiation.</p> <h3>Looking Ahead</h3> <p>Learning that a child has cancer is upsetting, and cancer treatment can be stressful for any family.</p> <p>But remember, you're not alone. To find <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/caregivers.html/">support</a>, talk to your doctor or a hospital social worker. Many resources are available to help you get through this difficult time.</p>Leucemia linfoblástica agudaLa leucemia es un tipo de cáncer de la sangre que afecta a los glóbulos blancos del cuerpo.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/parents/all-esp.html/f00f6223-377c-4122-aa8a-8102a6d2d116
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) happens when the body makes too many immature white blood cells. Among kids with leukemia, 20% have this type. With treatment, most recover.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/aml.html/7f9a5d82-cefc-4e34-8942-a11c3d0397f9
Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone MarrowA bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy liquid part of the bone where blood cells are made.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/aspiration.html/5925b589-4487-4975-85f6-850dc8c31e07
Cancer CenterFrom treatments and prevention to coping with the emotional aspects of cancer, the Cancer Center provides comprehensive information that parents need.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/center/cancer-center.html/92fcdf56-6935-42ac-a953-9eaf5f96fe2f
ChemotherapyChemotherapy is a big word for treatment with medicines used to help people who have cancer. This medicine kills the cancer cells that are making the person sick.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/kids/chemo.html/8c03a04e-e4b5-47b3-8476-20d45619a51f
Childhood CancerDifferent kinds of childhood cancer have different signs, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. But today, most kids with cancer get better.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer.html/fb37fd75-d961-43c2-b963-ef6f60486038
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)While this type of blood cancer is more common in adults, it affects children, too. Thanks to advances in therapy, most kids with CML can be cured.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cml.html/0c391d33-30a9-4d60-a548-26b06f0efe01
Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)Learn about this rare type of cancer, which usually affects kids under 4 years old.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/jmml.html/5f3d296a-f5db-4b0d-9f35-70461657d102
LeukemiaLeukemia refers to cancers of the white blood cells. With the proper treatment, the outlook for kids with leukemia is quite good.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-leukemia.html/d78fde51-319d-4c82-9476-e1e16f31c187
NeutropeniaCertain cancers, or cancer treatment, can weaken the immune system, requiring a child to stay home to avoid exposure to germs. Here are ways to help your child make the best of it.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/neutropenia.html/e6c76bd6-23c1-4e34-98ac-1d737131d51f
Stem Cell TransplantsStem cells help rebuild a weakened immune system. Stem cell transplants are effective treatments for a wide range of diseases, including cancer.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/stem-cells.html/d98ca062-7d31-45ea-ae16-8fc40d54aea7
kh:age-allAgesOrAgeAgnostickh:clinicalDesignation-oncologykh:genre-articlekh:primaryClinicalDesignation-oncologyCancer & Tumorshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/medical/cancer/088d4c52-cd61-4cca-af46-82de410d892aCancer Basicshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/cancer-center/cancer-basics/9ea0efb4-12d0-4d11-8b46-923deeb7b806