Adrenal Insufficiencyenparentshttps://kidshealth.org/EN/images/headers/KH_generic_header_01_2.jpgAdrenal insufficiency is a condition that happens when the adrenal glands do not work as they should. endocrine, adrenal insufficiency, adrenal, Addison’s disease, endocrinology, growth, development, thyroid, pituitary, replacement hormones, hormone therapy, hormones, metabolism, glands, hypothalamus, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, ovaries, testes, growth hormone, puberty, precocious puberty, prolactin, endorphins, adrenaline, epinephrine, ovulation, menstrual cycle, oxytocin, diabetes, insulin, gigantism, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, graves' disease, cushing's syndrome, blood sugar levels, estrogens, testosterone, androgens, melatonin, pancreas, corticosteroids, pregnancy, CD1Endocrinology10/23/201806/05/201909/02/2019Evan G. Graber, DO06/03/20194e0f836e-e182-4faf-b99c-9c5914d5d505https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/adrenal-insufficiency.html/<h3>What Is Adrenal Insufficiency?</h3> <p>Adrenal insufficiency happens when the adrenal <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/endocrine.html/">glands</a> make fewer hormones than they should. This can cause:</p> <ul> <li>weakness</li> <li>tiredness</li> <li>belly pain</li> <li>loss of appetite</li> <li>nausea</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/dehydration.html/">dehydration</a></li> <li>skin changes</li> </ul> <p>Some people with adrenal insufficiency have no symptoms unless they're exposed to stress.</p> <h3>What Are the Adrenal Glands?</h3> <p>There are two adrenal (eh-DREE-nul) glands, which sit above the <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/kidneys-urinary.html/">kidneys</a>. They make important hormones that:</p> <ul> <li>help the body handle stress</li> <li>control blood pressure</li> <li>balance salt levels</li> </ul> <p><img class="center_this" title="Illustration shows the adrenal glands above the kidneys" src="https://kidshealth.org/EN/images/illustrations/adrenals-415x233-rd5-enIL.png" alt="Illustration shows the adrenal glands above the kidneys" /></p> <h3>What Causes Adrenal Insufficiency?</h3> <p>There are two types of adrenal insufficiency:</p> <ul class="kh_longline_list"> <li>In <strong>primary adrenal insufficiency</strong>, the adrenal glands either are damaged or have a genetic problem. They don't make enough of the <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/hormones.html/">hormone</a> cortisol. Sometimes, they also don't make enough of the hormone aldosterone, which helps control salt balance in the body.</li> <li>In <strong>central adrenal insufficiency</strong>, the pituitary gland in the brain doesn't make enough of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands.</li> </ul> <p>There's also a temporary type of adrenal insufficiency. This can happen if someone is being treated with high doses of cortisol-like medicines, such as prednisone, and the medicine is suddenly decreased or stopped.</p> <h3>How Is Adrenal Insufficiency Diagnosed?</h3> <p>Doctors diagnose adrenal insufficiency with <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/injections-tests.html/">blood tests</a> to check hormone levels. They also might order:&nbsp;</p> <ul> <li>an ACTH stimulation test to see how the body responds to an injection of adrenocorticotropic hormone</li> <li><a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/mri.html/">magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)</a> to check the size and shape of the pituitary gland</li> </ul> <h3>How Is Adrenal Insufficiency Treated?</h3> <p>Doctors treat adrenal insufficiency by giving replacement hormones. They might prescribe:</p> <ul> <li>a corticosteroid taken by mouth several times a day to replace cortisol </li> <li>a medicine called fludrocortisone taken by mouth to replace aldosterone and balance the body's levels of salt and fluids</li> </ul> <p>Corticosteroid doses often need to increase during times of illness or stress.</p> <h3>What Is an Adrenal Crisis?</h3> <p>Sometimes, symptoms can suddenly become much worse, usually when someone is stressed by illness or injury. This is called an <strong>adrenal crisis</strong>. It needs medical treatment right away. Someone having an adrenal crisis needs to go to the hospital for IV (given into a vein) fluids and further doses of corticosteroids.</p> <p>Signs of an adrenal crisis can include:</p> <ul> <li>vomiting</li> <li>belly pain</li> <li>severe weakness</li> <li>sweating a lot</li> <li>confusion</li> <li>loss of consciousness</li> </ul> <p>Kids and teens with adrenal insufficiency should:</p> <ul> <li>always wear a medical alert ID</li> <li>always have injectable steroid with them and all caregivers should learn how to use it</li> </ul> <h3>When Should I Call 911?</h3> <p>If your child shows signs of an adrenal crisis, give the injectable steroid and <strong>call 911 right away</strong>.</p> <h3>When Should I Call the Doctor?</h3> <p>Call the doctor if your child:</p> <ul> <li>has trouble taking the prescribed medicines</li> <li>develops signs of an infection, such as a <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/fever.html/">fever</a>, <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/childs-cough.html/">cough</a>, or <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/diarrhea.html/">diarrhea</a> and <a href="https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/vomit.html/">vomiting</a></li> <li>has a situation that will cause stress in the body, such as an injury or needing surgery</li> </ul>Insuficiencia suprarrenalLa insuficiencia suprarrenal ocurre cuando las glándulas suprarrenales producen menos hormonas de las que deberían. Algunas personas con insuficiencia suprarrenal no tienen síntomas a menos que se vean sometidas a estrés. https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/es/parents/adrenal-insufficiency-esp.html/51839c44-c178-4632-86e5-a2341a8b7c9c
Blood Test: Dehydroepiandrosterone-Sulfate (DHEA-S)Doctors may order a DHEA-S test if boys or girls show signs of sexual development earlier than expected. It can rule out certain diseases of the testes or ovaries, or help diagnose damage or disease of the pituitary gland.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/test-dheas.html/56ce57e1-cb9e-4a84-be95-6ec13f20b8bc
Blood Test: EstradiolEstradiol is the most important form of the hormone estrogen. Doctors may order an estradiol test if a girl appears to be entering puberty earlier or later than expected, or to evaluate menstrual problems.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/blood-test-estradiol.html/3ef3d518-8bd4-41ee-9548-91c623bfb2f0
Congenital Adrenal HyperplasiaCongenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) affects the adrenal glands, which make important hormones. Symptoms depend on a child's age, sex, and which hormones the adrenal glands make too little or too much of.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia.html/2dff34e9-e37d-4845-9fa0-1129ae192d5a
Endocrine SystemThe glands of the endocrine system and the hormones they release affect almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies.https://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/endocrine.html/b4b292ba-f3b7-42aa-83a3-3df7e9edb5c3
kh:age-allAgesOrAgeAgnostickh:clinicalDesignation-endocrinologykh:genre-qAndAkh:primaryClinicalDesignation-endocrinologyEndocrine Glands, Growth & Diabeteshttps://kidshealth.org/ws/RadyChildrens/en/parents/medical/endocrine/587da900-34e2-43e7-a2a4-5a4ed4bc7781https://kidshealth.org/EN/images/illustrations/adrenals-415x233-rd5-enIL.png