Hepatitis A is a contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
Hepatitis A is also called infectious hepatitis.
How Do People Get Hepatitis A?
HAV spreads through the feces (poop) of infected individuals. Someone can become
infected by eating, drinking, or touching something (such as doorknobs or diapers)
that's been contaminated by poop. Childcare centers are a common site of outbreaks.
HAV can spread:
when people ingest something contaminated with HAV-infected poop (which is why
it's easy for the virus to spread in overcrowded, unsanitary living conditions)
in water, milk, and foods (especially shellfish)
Hepatitis A can remain in the stool for several months after the initial illness,
especially in babies and younger children.
Who Is at Risk for Hepatitis A?
A safe and very effective vaccine against HAV became available in 1995. HAV infections
now are rare in the United States and other developed countries with good sanitation
and clean living conditions.
People who haven't been immunized can get an HAV infection if they:
travel to or live in countries where the virus is common (especially developing
countries with poor sanitation)
live with or care for someone who's infected
use illegal drugs
have sex with someone who has HAV
What Are the Signs & Symptoms of HAV Infection?
Hepatitis A can be a mild infection, particularly in kids younger than 6, so many
people might not ever know that they had an infection.
When symptoms do happen, they typically start 2 to 6 weeks after exposure to the
virus and are more likely in adults and kids older than 6. HAV can cause vomiting
and diarrhea, as well as
fever, loss of appetite, darker
than usual urine (pee), jaundice (when the skin and whites of the eyes look yellow),
and abdominal (belly) pain.
HAV infections that cause serious symptoms can last for weeks or even months. Some
people with HAV can feel ill for up to 6 months.
How Is Hepatitis A Diagnosed?
If needed, doctors can do a blood test to look for HAV antibodies. Many mild HAV
infections go undetected.
How Is Hepatitis A Treated?
No specific medicines are used to treat hepatitis A. The infection will go away
on its own, usually within a few weeks or months.
Unlike some other hepatitis
viruses, hepatitis A rarely leads to long-lasting liver damage. Within a few weeks,
the symptoms will have gone away on their own and the virus won't be in a person's
After recovering, a person is immune to the virus for the rest of his or her life.
Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented?
Yes. The hepatitis
A vaccine is recommended for all children over 1 year old. The vaccine
is given at 12–23 months of age, followed by a second dose 6–18 months
later. Having many young kids vaccinated against HAV can limit the spread of the disease
in a community.
The vaccine can be given as early as 6 months of age to babies who will travel
to a place where hepatitis A is common (they will still need routine vaccination after
their first birthday).
The vaccine also is recommended for older kids and adults at high risk for hepatitis
A, including people who:
live in, visit, or adopt children from areas with high rates of HAV
have chronic liver disease
have clotting disorders
The HAV vaccine also is useful for staff of childcare facilities where they may
be at risk of exposure. In those settings, it's also important for staff to wash
their hands well and often, especially after going to the bathroom or changing
a diaper, and before preparing or eating food.