When their little one comes into the world, new parents might be surprised by their
baby's appearance. Instead of the picture-perfect cherub, babies often look bluish,
are covered with blood and cream-cheesy glop, and look like they've just been in a
The features that may make a normal newborn look strange are temporary. After all,
babies develop while immersed in fluid, folded up in an increasingly cramped space
inside the uterus. Then in most deliveries, they're pushed through a narrow, bone-walled
When you'll get to first see and touch your newborn may depend on the type of delivery,
your condition, and the condition of your baby. Following an uncomplicated vaginal
delivery, you should be able to hold your baby within minutes.
What Should We Expect?
In most cases, infants seem to be in a state of quiet alertness during the first
hour or so after delivery. It's a great time for you and your newborn to get acquainted
and begin the bonding process. And
it's OK if circumstances prevent you from meeting your infant right away — you'll
have plenty of quality time together soon.
During the first several weeks, you'll notice that much of the time your baby will
tend to keep his or her fists clenched, elbows bent, hips and knees flexed, and arms
and legs held close to the front of his or her body. This position is similar to the
fetal position during the last months of pregnancy. Infants who are born prematurely
may display several differences in their posture, appearance, activity, and behavior
compared with full-term newborns.
Infants are born with a number of instinctual responses to stimuli, such as light
or touch, known as primitive reflexes, which gradually disappear
as the baby matures. These reflexes include the:
sucking reflex, which triggers an infant to forcibly suck on
any object put in the mouth
grasp reflex, which causes a newborn to tightly close the fingers
when pressure is applied to the inside of the infant's hand by a finger or other object
Moro reflex, or startle response, which causes an infant to suddenly
throw the arms out to the sides and then quickly bring them back toward the middle
of the body whenever the baby has been startled by a loud noise, bright light, strong
smell, sudden movement, or other stimulus
Also, due to the immaturity of their developing nervous systems, newborns' arms,
legs, and chins may tremble or shake, particularly when they're crying or agitated.
Sleeping and Breathing
In the first weeks, infants usually spend most of their time sleeping.
Newborns whose mothers received certain types of pain medications or anesthesia during
labor or delivery can be especially sleepy during the first day or two of life.
Many new parents become concerned about their newborn's breathing pattern, particularly
with the increased attention to sudden infant
death syndrome (SIDS) in recent years. But rest assured that it's normal for newborns
to breathe somewhat irregularly.
When infants are awake, their breathing rate may vary widely, sometimes exceeding
60 breaths per minute, particularly when they're excited or following a bout of crying.
Also common are periods during which they stop breathing for about 5 to 10 seconds
and then start up again on their own. Known as periodic breathing,
it's more likely during sleep and is normal. However, if your baby turns blue or stops
breathing for longer stretches of time, it's considered an emergency and you should
contact your child's doctor immediately or go to the emergency room.
Although talking won't come until much later, your newborn will produce a symphony
of noises — especially high-pitched squeaks — in addition to the obligatory
crying. Sneezing and hiccups are common and are not signs of infection,
allergies, or digestive problems.
Because an infant's head is usually the first part through the birth canal, it
can be affected by the delivery process. A newborn's skull is made of several separate
bones (which will eventually fuse together) to allow the large head to be squeezed
through the narrow birth canal without injury to mother or baby.
The heads of infants born by vaginal delivery often show some degree of molding,
which is when the skull bones shift and overlap, making the top of the head look elongated,
stretched out, or even pointed at birth. This sometimes bizarre appearance will go
away over the next several days as the skull bones move into a more rounded configuration.
The heads of babies born by cesarean section or breech (buttocks or feet first) delivery
usually don't show molding.
Because of the separation of your newborn's skull bones, you'll be able to feel
(go ahead, you won't harm anything) two fontanels, or soft spots,
on the top of the head. The larger one, located toward the front of the head, is diamond-shaped
and usually about 1 to 3 inches wide. A smaller, triangle-shaped fontanel is found
farther back on the head, where a beanie might be worn.
Don't be alarmed if you see the fontanels bulge out when your infant cries or strains,
or if they seem to move up and down in time with the baby's heartbeat. This is perfectly
normal. The fontanels will eventually disappear as the skull bones close together
— usually in about 12 to 18 months for the front fontanel and in about 6 months
for the one in back.
In addition to looking elongated, a newborn's head may have a lump or two as a
result of the trauma of delivery. Caput succedaneum is a circular
swelling and bruising of the scalp usually seen on top of the head toward the back,
which is the part of the scalp most often leading the way through the birth canal.
This will fade over a few days.
A cephalohematoma is a collection of blood that has seeped under
the outer covering membrane of one of the skull bones. This is usually caused during
birth by the pressure of the head against the mother's pelvic bones. The lump is confined
to one side of the top of the baby's head and, in contrast to caput succedaneum, may
take a week or two to disappear. The breakdown of the blood collected in a cephalohematoma
may cause these infants to become somewhat more jaundiced
than others during the first week of life.
It's important to remember that both caput succedaneum and cephalohematoma occur
due to trauma outside of the skull — neither indicates that there has been any
injury to the infant's brain.
A newborn's face may look quite puffy due to fluid accumulation and the rough trip
through the birth canal. The infant's facial appearance often changes significantly
during the first few days as the baby gets rid of the extra fluid and the trauma of
delivery eases. That's why the photos you take of your baby later on at home usually
look a lot different than those "new arrival" nursery shots.
In some cases, a newborn's facial features can be quite distorted as a result of
positioning in the uterus and the squeeze through the birth canal. Not to worry —
that folded ear, flattened nose, or crooked jaw usually comes back into place over
A few minutes after birth, most infants open their eyes and start to look around
at their environment. Newborns can see,
but they probably don't focus well at first, which is why their eyes may seem out
of line or crossed at times during the first 2 to 3 months. Because of the puffiness
of their eyelids, some infants may not be able to open their eyes wide right away.
When holding your newborn, you can encourage eye opening by taking advantage of
your baby's "doll's eye" reflex, which is a tendency to open the eyes more when held
in an upright position.
Parents are sometimes startled to see that the white part of one or both of their
newborn's eyes appears blood-red. Called subconjunctival hemorrhage,
this occurs when blood leaks under the covering of the eyeball due to the trauma of
delivery. It's a harmless condition similar to a skin bruise that goes away after
several days, and it generally doesn't indicate that there has been any damage to
the infant's eyes.
Parents are often curious to know what color eyes their infant will have. If a
baby's eyes are brown at birth, they will remain so. This is the case for most black
and Asian infants. Most white infants are born with bluish-gray eyes, but the pigmentation
of the iris (the colored part of the eye) may progressively darken, usually not reaching
its permanent color until about 3 to 6 months of age.
A newborn's ears, as well as other features, may be distorted by the position they
were in while inside the uterus. Because the baby hasn't yet developed the thick cartilage
that gives firm shape to an older child's ears, it isn't unusual for newborns to come
out with temporarily folded or otherwise misshapen ears. Small tags of skin or pits
(shallow holes) in the skin on the side of the face just in front of the ear are also
common. Usually, these skin tags can be easily removed (talk to your doctor).
Because newborns tend to breathe through their noses and their nasal passages are
narrow, small amounts of nasal fluid or mucus can cause them to breathe noisily or
sound congested even when they don't have a cold or other problem. Talk with your
doctor about the use of saltwater nose drops and a bulb syringe to help clear the
nasal passages if necessary.
Sneezing is also common in newborns. This is a normal reflex and isn't due to an
infection, allergies, or other problems.
When your newborn opens his or her mouth to yawn or cry, you may notice some small
white spots on the roof of the mouth, usually near the center. These small collections
of cells are called Epstein's pearls and, along with fluid-filled cysts sometimes
present on the gums, will disappear during the first few weeks.
Yes ... it's there. Normally the neck looks short in newborns because it tends
to get lost in the chubby cheeks and folds of skin.
Because an infant's chest wall is thin, you may easily feel or observe your baby's
upper chest move with each heartbeat. This is normal and isn't a cause for concern.
Also, both male and female newborns can have breast enlargement. This is due to
the female hormone estrogen passed to the fetus from the mother during pregnancy.
You may feel firm, disc-shaped lumps of tissue beneath the nipples and, occasionally,
a small amount of milky fluid (called "witch's milk" in folklore) may be released
from the nipples. The breast enlargement almost always disappears during the first
few weeks. Despite what some parents believe, you shouldn't squeeze the breast tissue
— it will not make the breasts shrink any faster than they will on their own.
Arms and Legs
Following birth, full-term newborns tend to assume a posture similar to what their
position in the cramped uterus had been: arms and legs flexed and held close to their
bodies. The hands are usually tightly closed, and it may be difficult for you to open
them up because touching or placing an object in the palms triggers a strong grasp
Infants' fingernails can be long enough at birth to scratch their skin as they
bring their hands to their faces. If this is the case, you can carefully trim your
baby's nails with a pair of small scissors.
Sometimes parents are concerned about the curved appearance of their newborn's
feet and legs. But if you recall the usual position of the fetus in the womb during
the final months of pregnancy — hips flexed and knees bent with the legs and
feet crossed tightly up against the abdomen — it's no surprise that a newborn's
legs and feet tend to curve inward.
You can usually move your newborn's legs and feet into a "walking" position; and
this will happen naturally as a baby begins to bear weight, walk, and grow through
the first 2 to 3 years of life.
It's normal for a baby's abdomen (belly) to appear somewhat full and rounded. When
your baby cries or strains, you may also note that the skin over the central area
of the abdomen may protrude between the strips of muscle tissue making up the abdominal
wall on either side. This almost always disappears during the next several months
as a baby grows.
Many parents are concerned about the appearance and care of their infant's umbilical
cord. The cord contains three blood vessels (two arteries and a vein) encased
in a jelly-like substance. Following delivery, the cord is clamped or tied off before
it's cut to separate the infant from the placenta. The umbilical stump is then simply
allowed to wither and drop off, which usually happens in about 10 days to 3 weeks.
You may be instructed to swab the area with alcohol periodically or wash it with
soap and water if the stump becomes dirty or sticky to help prevent infection until
the cord falls off and the stump dries up. The baby's navel area shouldn't be submerged
in water during bathing until this occurs. The withering cord will go through color
changes, from yellow to brown or black — this is normal. You should consult
your baby's doctor if the navel area becomes red or if a foul odor or discharge develops.
Umbilical (navel) hernias are common in newborns,
particularly in infants of African heritage. A hole in the wall of the abdomen at
the site of the umbilical cord/future navel allows the baby's intestine to protrude
through when he or she cries or strains, causing the overlying skin to bulge outward.
These hernias are generally harmless
and aren't painful to the infant. Most close on their own during the first few years,
but a simple surgical procedure can fix the hernia if it doesn't close by itself.
Home remedies for umbilical hernias that have been tried through the years, such as
strapping and taping coins over the area, should not be attempted.
These techniques are ineffective and may result in skin infections or other injuries.
The genitalia (sexual organs) of both male
and female infants
may appear relatively large and swollen at birth. Why? It's due to several factors,
including exposure to hormones produced by both the mother and the fetus, bruising
and swelling of the genital tissues related to birth trauma, and the natural course
of development of the genitalia.
In girls, the outer lips of the vagina (labia majora) may appear puffy at birth.
The skin of the labia may be either smooth or somewhat wrinkled. Sometimes, a small
piece of pink tissue may protrude between the labia — this is a hymenal tag
and it's of no significance; it will eventually recede into the labia as the genitals
Due to the effects of maternal hormones, most newborn girls will have a vaginal
discharge of mucus and perhaps some blood that lasts for a few days. This "mini-period"
is normal menstrual-type bleeding from the infant's uterus that occurs as the estrogen
passed to the infant by the mother begins to disappear. Although it's much more common
in boys, swelling in the groin of an infant girl can indicate the presence of an inguinal (groin) hernia.
In boys, the scrotum (the sack containing the testicles) often looks swollen. This
is usually due to a hydrocele, a collection of fluid in the scrotum
of infant boys that usually disappears during the first 3 to 6 months. You should
call your doctor about swelling or bulging in your son's scrotum or groin that lasts
beyond 3 to 6 months or that seems to come and go. This may indicate an inguinal hernia,
which usually requires surgical treatment.
The testicles of newborn boys may be difficult to feel in the swollen scrotum.
Muscles attached to the testicles pull them up into the groin briskly when the genital
area is touched or exposed to a cool environment. Infant boys also normally experience
frequent penile erections, often just before they urinate.
More than 95% of newborns pee within the first 24 hours. If your baby is delivered
in a hospital, nursery personnel will want to know if this happens while your infant
is with you. If a newborn doesn't urinate for what seems like a while at first, it
may be that he or she urinated immediately after birth while still in the delivery
room. With all the activity going on, that first urination may not have been noticed.
If your infant son was circumcised,
it usually takes between 7 to 10 days for the penis to heal. Until it does, the tip
may seem raw or yellowish in color. Although this is normal, certain other symptoms
are not. Call your child's doctor right away if you notice persistent bleeding, redness
around the tip of the penis that gets worse after 3 days, fever,
signs of infection (such as the presence of pus-filled blisters), and not urinating
normally within 6 to 8 hours after the circumcision.
With both circumcised and uncircumcised penises, no cotton swabs, astringents,
or any special bath products are needed — simple soap and warm water every time
you bathe your baby will do the trick.
No special washing precautions are needed for newly circumcised babies, other than
to be gentle, as your baby may have some mild discomfort after the circumcision. If
your son has a bandage on his incision, you might need to apply a new one whenever
you change his diaper for a day or two after the procedure (put petroleum jelly on
the bandage so it won't stick to his skin).
Doctors often also recommend putting a dab of petroleum jelly on the baby's penis
or on the front of the diaper to alleviate any potential discomfort caused by friction
against the diaper. How you take care of your baby's penis may also vary depending
on the type of circumcision procedure the doctor performs. Be sure to discuss what
after-care will be needed.
If your baby boy wasn't circumcised, be sure to never forcibly pull back the foreskin
to clean beneath it. Instead, gently tense it against the tip of the penis and wash
off any smegma (the whitish "beads" of dead skin cells mixed with the body's natural
oil). Over time, the foreskin will retract on its own so that it can be pulled away
from the glans toward the abdomen. This happens at different times for different boys,
but most can retract their foreskins by the time they're 5 years old.
There's little doubt about the origin of the expression "still wet behind the ears,"
used to describe someone new or inexperienced. Newborns are covered with various fluids
at delivery, including amniotic fluid and often some blood (the mother's, not the
baby's). Nurses or other personnel attending the birth will promptly begin drying
the infant to avoid a drop in the baby's body temperature that will occur if moisture
on the skin evaporates rapidly.
Newborns are also coated with a thick, pasty, white material called vernix
caseosa (made up of the fetus' shed skin cells and skin gland secretions),
most of which will be washed off during the baby's first bath.
The hue and color patterns of a newborn's skin may be startling to some parents.
Mottling of the skin, a lacy pattern of small reddish and pale areas,
is common because of the normal instability of the blood circulation at the skin's
surface. For similar reasons, acrocyanosis, or blueness of the skin
of the hands and feet and the area surrounding the lips, is often present, especially
if the infant is in a cool environment.
When bearing down to cry or having a bowel movement, an infant's skin temporarily
may appear beet-red or bluish-purple. Red marks, scratches, bruises, and petechiae
(tiny specks of blood that have leaked from small blood vessels in the skin) are all
common on the face and other body parts. They're caused by the trauma of squeezing
through the birth canal. These will heal and disappear during the first week or two
Fine, soft hair, called lanugo, may be on a newborn's face, shoulders,
and back. Most of this hair is usually shed in the uterus before the baby is delivered;
for this reason, lanugo is more often seen on babies born prematurely. In any case,
this hair will disappear in a few weeks.
The top layer of a newborn's skin will flake off during the first week or two.
This is normal and doesn't require any special skin care. Peeling skin may be present
at birth in some infants, particularly those who are born past their due date.
Not all babies come with a birthmark.
However, pink or red areas, sometimes called salmon patches, are
common and generally disappear within the first year. Most frequently found on the
back of the neck or on the bridge of the nose, eyelids, or brow (hence the fanciful
nicknames "stork bite" and "angel kiss"), they can occur anywhere on the skin, especially
in light-skinned infants.
Mongolian spots, flat patches of slate-blue or blue-green color
that resemble ink stains on the back, buttocks, or elsewhere on the skin, are found
in more than half of black, Native American, and Asian infants and less often in white
babies. These spots are of no significance and almost always fade or disappear within
a few years.
Strawberry or capillary hemangiomas
are raised red marks caused by collections of widened blood vessels in the skin. These
may appear pale at birth, then become red and enlarge during the first months of life.
Then, they usually shrink and disappear without treatment within the first 6 years.
which are large, flat, reddish-purple birthmarks, won't disappear on their own. As
a child gets older, cosmetic appearance concerns may require the attention of a dermatologist.
Cafe-au-lait spots, so called because of their "coffee with milk"
light-brown color, are present on the skin of some infants. These may deepen in color
(or may first appear) as the child grows older. They're usually of no concern unless
they're large or there are six or more spots on the body, which may indicate the presence
of certain medical conditions.
Common brown or black moles, known as pigmented nevi, also can be
present at birth or appear (or get darker) as a child gets older. Larger moles
or those with an unusual appearance should be brought to a doctor's attention because
some may require removal.
Several harmless skin rashes and conditions may be present at
birth or appear during the first few weeks. Tiny, flat, yellow or white spots on the
nose and chin, called milia, are caused by the collection of secretions
in skin glands and will disappear within the first few weeks.
Miliaria — small, raised, red bumps that often have a white
or yellow "head" — is sometimes called infant acne because of its appearance.
Although miliaria often occurs on the face and can appear on large areas of the body,
it's a harmless condition that will go away within the first several weeks with normal
Despite the frightening sound of its medical name, erythema
toxicum is a harmless newborn rash consisting of red blotches with pale
or yellowish bumps at the center, which can resemble hives.
This rash usually blossoms during the first day or two after birth and disappears
within a week.
Pustular melanosis, a rash present at birth, is characterized
by dark brown bumps or blisters scattered over the neck, back, arms, legs, and palms,
which disappear without treatment.
Also, it isn't unusual to see infants born with sucking blisters
on the fingers, hands, or arms because the fetus can suck while still in the uterus.
Newborn jaundice, a yellowish discoloration of the skin and white
parts of the eyes, is a common condition that normally doesn't appear until the second
or third day after birth and disappears within 1 to 2 weeks. Jaundice is caused by
the accumulation of bilirubin (a waste product produced by the normal breakdown of
red blood cells) in the blood, skin, and other tissues due to the temporary inability
of the newborn's immature liver to clear this substance from the body effectively.
Although some jaundice is normal, if an infant becomes jaundiced earlier than expected
or the bilirubin level is higher than normal, the doctor will follow the baby very
Getting to Know Your Little One
The first days and weeks of a newborn's life are a time of great wonder and delight
for most new parents. However,
being responsible for this tiny creature can be scary, particularly if you're not
familiar with how a newborn looks and behaves.
If you feel anxious or uncertain about any part of caring for your baby, don't
hesitate to call your doctor, other health care professionals, or family or friends
who have had experience caring for a newborn.