In type 1 diabetes, special cells in the pancreas that make insulin (beta cells) are destroyed. The body needs insulin to help glucose (sugar) get from the blood into the cells for energy. Without insulin, a person’s blood sugar rises and they get sick.
If your child or teen is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, the next step is to start treatment. Treating diabetes means keeping blood sugar levels in a healthy range. Your child’s diabetes care team will treat your child using a personalized diabetes care plan made for them.
Researchers and doctors all over the world are working on a cure for diabetes. Until that happens, following a treatment plan is the key to living a long, healthy life with diabetes.
What Is a Diabetes Care Plan?
A diabetes care plan is a set of instructions for you and your child to follow. The goal of the plan is to help keep your child’s blood sugars in a healthy range.
There are four parts to a diabetes care plan:
checking blood sugar levels
eating a healthy, balanced diet while counting carbohydrates
getting regular physical activity
The diabetes care team will teach you and your child the ins and outs of the plan and how to stick to it. There may be a lot to learn in the beginning, but soon enough you will be a pro.
90-Second Summary: Type 1 Diabetes
Learn the basics in 90 seconds.
Checking Blood Sugar Levels
Treating type 1 diabetes also includes checking blood sugar levels every day. There are two ways to do this:
With a blood glucose meter. Most kids with type 1 diabetes need to check their blood sugar before meals and at bedtime. This is about four times a day, and sometimes more often. The care plan will tell you how often to check and what to do if the sugar is too high or too low.
With a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). This wearable device measures sugar levels every few minutes all day and night. It uses a thread-like sensor that’s put under the skin and secured in place. Sensors can stay in place for 10 days before they have to be replaced. Because a CGM takes blood sugar measurements so often, it can help you and the care team do an even better job keeping blood sugar in the healthy range.
The care team will use the blood sugar levels to adjust your child’s insulin plan over time.
The team also will monitor your child’s blood sugar using a blood test called glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c or HbA1c). The results will represent your child’s average blood glucose in the 2–3 months before the test. This helps the care team know how well the care plan is working for your child.
Keeping the A1c at 7% or lower keeps people healthy and lowers the chances of health problems from diabetes.
All kids and teens with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin so that glucose can get from their blood into their cells for energy. The care team will make an insulin schedule specifically for your child.
Kids can get insulin:
By injection. Kids usually need 4 or more injections every day. An insulin needle is very tiny, and a shot isn’t very painful. The care team will teach you how to help your child cope with injections.
With an insulin pump. The pump continuously injects insulin through a small tube that is placed just under the skin.
The care team will teach you and your child how to do the injections or use the pump.
Kids with type 1 diabetes need to find the right balance of food, insulin, and exercise to keep their blood sugars in the healthy range. It helps to understand how different foods affect your child’s blood sugar. The care team will teach you about healthy eating and how to:
Count carbs in meals and snacks. When you know the number of carbs your child eats and drinks, you can figure out how much insulin they need. This gives your child the flexibility to eat how often and how much they like.
Getting Regular Physical Activity
Exercise strengthens your child’s muscles and bones, helps them feel good, and controls blood sugar levels. In fact, being active makes insulin work better. Kids with type 1 diabetes can and should exercise.
Putting It All Together
As you help your child manage type 1 diabetes, the detailed care plan and diabetes care team can keep you on track. Following the plan and staying in touch with the care team is the best way to keep your child healthy.