Impetigo (pronounced: im-peh-TY-go) is a very common skin infection, especially
in young kids. But anyone can get it. It can cause blisters or sores on the face,
hands, and legs.
What Causes Impetigo?
Someone can be more likely to develop impetigo when their skin is already irritated
by another problem, such as eczema,
poison ivy, insect
bites, and cuts or scrapes. Scratching
a sore or a rash is a common cause — for example, poison ivy can get infected
and turn into impetigo. It also happens more often in warm, humid environments.
Washing your hands and face
well and often can help prevent it.
What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Impetigo?
Impetigo may affect skin anywhere on the body, but is most common around the nose
and mouth, hands, and forearms.
The three types of impetigo are non-bullous (crusted), bullous
(large blisters), and ecthyma (ulcers):
Non-bullous or crusted impetigo is most common. It begins as tiny blisters that
eventually burst and leave small wet patches of red skin that may weep fluid. Gradually,
a yellowish-brown or tan crust covers the area, making it look like it has been coated
with honey or brown sugar.
Bullous impetigo causes larger fluid-containing blisters that look clear, then
cloudy. These blisters are more likely to stay longer on the skin without bursting.
Ecthyma impetigo looks like "punched out" ulcers with yellow crust and red edges.
Is Impetigo Contagious?
Impetigo is contagious, and can spread from one person to another. It's usually
caused by one of two bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus
pyogenes (also called group A streptococcus, which also causes strep
throat). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
is also becoming an important cause of impetigo.
Impetigo can spread to anyone who touches infected skin or items that have been
touched by infected skin (such as clothing, towels, and bed linens). It can be itchy,
so people also can spread the infection when they scratch it and then touch other
parts of their body.
How Is Impetigo Diagnosed?
In most cases, doctors can diagnose impetigo based on how the rash looks. Occasionally,
they may need to take a sample of fluid from blisters for testing.
How Is Impetigo Treated?
Impetigo is typically treated with antibiotics, either as an ointment or a medicine
taken by mouth:
When it just affects a small area of the skin (and especially if it's the non-bullous
form), impetigo is treated with antibiotic ointment for 5 days.
If the infection has spread to other areas of the body or the ointment isn't working,
the doctor may prescribe an antibiotic pill or liquid to be taken for 7–10 days.
After antibiotic treatment begins, healing should start within a few days. It's
important to make sure that you take the medicine as prescribed. Otherwise, a deeper
and more serious skin infection could develop.
While the infection is healing, gently wash your skin with clean gauze and antiseptic
soap every day. Soak any areas of crusted skin with warm soapy water to help remove
the layers of crust (you don't have to remove all of it).
To keep impetigo from spreading to other parts of the body, the doctor or nurse
will probably recommend covering infected areas with gauze and tape or a loose plastic
bandage. Keep your fingernails short and clean to prevent scratching that could lead
to a worse infection.
Can Impetigo Be Prevented?
Keeping skin clean can help prevent impetigo. Wash your hands well and often and
take baths or showers regularly.
Pay special attention to skin injuries (cuts, scrapes, bug bites, etc.), areas of
eczema, and rashes such as poison ivy. Keep these areas clean and covered.
To prevent impetigo from spreading among family members, everyone should use their
own clothing, sheets, razors, soaps, and towels. When these items get dirty, wash
them separately in very hot water. Using paper towels instead of cloth towels also
can help keep the infection from spreading to others. Sharing makeup is never a good
idea but even more risky if you have impetigo.
When Should I Call the Doctor?
Call the doctor if you have signs of impetigo, especially if you've been around
a family member, friend, or classmate with the infection.
Keep an eye on the sores and call the doctor if the skin doesn't begin to heal
after 3 days of treatment or you develop a fever. If the area around the rash becomes
red, warm, or tender to the touch, call your doctor right away.