You've heard of varicose veins — those swollen veins that sometimes show
up in the legs.
But you might never have heard of a varicocele, which is also a swelling
of the veins. A varicocele happens just to guys. That's because it's not in the legs
but in a place a bit more private and a lot more tender — the scrotum. It's
generally harmless and basically the same kind of thing as varicose veins in the legs.
But what exactly is a varicocele and how do you get rid of it?
What Is a Varicocele?
In all guys, a structure called the spermatic cord (which contains arteries,
veins, nerves, and tubes) provides a connection and circulates blood to and from the testicles. Veins carry
the blood flowing from the body back toward the heart, and a bunch of valves in the
veins keep the blood flowing one way and stop it from flowing backward. In other words,
the valves regulate your blood flow and make sure everything is flowing in the right
But sometimes these valves can fail. When this happens, some of the blood can flow
in reverse. This backed-up blood can collect in pools in the veins, which then causes
the veins to stretch and get bigger, or become swollen. This is called a varicocele
Who Gets Them?
There's no way to prevent a varicocele. They don't happen to every guy, but are
fairly common. That's because during puberty, the testicles grow quickly and need
more blood delivered to them. If the valves in the veins in the scrotum aren't working
as well as they should, the veins can't handle carrying this extra blood. So, although
most of the blood continues to flow correctly, some begins to back up, creating a
Varicoceles happen mostly on the left side of the scrotum. This is because a guy's
body is organized so that blood flow on that side of the scrotum is greater, so varicoceles
happen more often in the left testicle than the right. Although it's less common,
they can sometimes happen on both sides.
What Are the Signs of a Varicocele?
In most cases, guys have no symptoms at all. A guy might not even be aware that
he has a varicocele. When symptoms do happen, it's usually during hot weather, after
heavy exercise, or when a guy has been standing or sitting for a long time.
a dull ache in the testicle(s)
a feeling of heaviness or dragging in the scrotum
dilated veins in the scrotum that can be felt (described as feeling like worms
discomfort in the testicle or on that particular side of the scrotum
the testicle is smaller on the side where the dilated veins are (due to difference
in blood flow)
How Are Varicoceles Diagnosed?
It's a good idea to get a testicular
exam regularly, which is normally part of a guy's regular checkup. Besides visually
checking for any unusual lumps or bumps, the health care provider might feel
the testicles and the area around them to make sure a guy's equipment is in good
shape and there are no problems.
A testicular exam may be done while a guy is standing up so that the scrotum is
relaxed. (Some abnormalities like a varicocele can be more easily felt in a standing
position.) The doctor checks things like the size, weight, and position of the testicles,
and gently rolls each testicle back and forth to feel for lumps or swelling. The doctor
also feels for any signs of tenderness along the epididymis,
the tube that transports sperm from the testicles.
The spermatic cord is also examined for any sign of swelling. If the doctor thinks
there might be a varicocele, he or she might do an ultrasound, which can measure
blood flow and identify veins that aren't working correctly.
How Are Varicoceles Treated?
Most varicoceles need no special treatment. A varicocele is usually harmless
and more than likely won't affect a guy's ability to father a child later in life.
But if there is any pain and swelling, the doctor
may prescribe an anti-inflammatory medicine to relieve it. If the varicocele causes
discomfort or aching, wearing snug underwear (like briefs) or a jock strap for support
may bring relief.
If the doctor thinks the testicle is being affected by the varicocele or if there's
still pain and support doesn't help, a type of surgery called a varicocelectomy
may be recommended. This is done by a urologist, a doctor who specializes
in urinary and genital problems. The urologist will discuss the different ways a varicocelectomy
can be done and recommend the best approach for the patient.
The procedure is usually done on an outpatient basis (meaning there's no need for
an overnight hospital stay). The patient usually gets general or local anesthesia.
Then, the doctor simply ties off the affected vein to redirect the flow of blood into
other normal veins.
In some cases, instead of surgery, doctors can pass a plastic tube into the vein
that's causing the varicocele and treat the problem by blocking blood flow to the
enlarged vein. Talk with your doctor about whether this treatment might be an option
the doctor probably will recommend that a guy wear a scrotal support and use a cold
pack on the area to bring down any swelling. There may be discomfort in the testicle
for a few weeks, but after that, any aches and pains will go away and everything should
be back in full working order.