Constipation is a very common problem in kids. A child is considered constipated when he or she has fewer than three bowel movements in a week; has trouble having a bowel movement; or when the stool (poop) is hard, dry, and unusually large.
Constipation usually isn't a cause for concern, and easy to avoid by adopting healthy eating and exercise habits.
Causes of Constipation
Constipation usually is due to a diet that doesn't include enough water and fiber, which help the bowels move properly. Kids who eat lots of processed foods, cheeses, white bread and bagels, and meats may become constipated fairly often. Eating a healthier diet with high-fiber foods like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can keep stool from getting hard and dry.
Sometimes, medicines like antidepressants and those used to treat iron deficiencies can cause constipation. Constipation can happen in babies as they move from breast milk to baby formula, or from baby food to solid food. Toddlers who are toilet training sometimes can become constipated, especially if they're pushed to toilet train before they're ready.
Some kids avoid going to the bathroom, even when they really have the urge to go. They might ignore internal urges because they don't want to use a restroom away from home, stop playing a fun game, or have to ask an adult to be excused to go to the bathroom. Ignoring the urge to go makes it harder to go later.
Stress also can lead to constipation. Kids can get constipated when they're anxious about something, like starting at a new school or problems at home. Research has shown that emotional upsets can affect how well the gut functions and can cause constipation and other conditions, like diarrhea.
Some kids get constipated because of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which can happen when they're stressed or eat certain trigger foods, which often are fatty or spicy. A child with IBS may have either constipation or diarrhea, as well as stomach pain and gas.
In rare cases, constipation is a sign of other medical illnesses. So talk to your doctor if your child continues to have problems or if the constipation lasts for 2 to 3 weeks.
Symptoms of Constipation
Keep in mind that different kids have different bathroom habits. A child who doesn't have a bowel movement every day isn't necessarily constipated. One child might go three times a day, while another might go once every 3 days.
Generally, signs of constipation in kids include:
It's also common for kids with constipation to sometimes stain their underwear with bits of stool.
Dealing With Constipation
To prevent and treat constipation:
These small changes help most kids feel better and get the bowels moving the way they should. Talk with the doctor before giving your child any kind of over-the-counter medication for constipation.
Reviewed by: Rupal Christine Gupta, MD