Salmonellosis is a foodborne illness caused by infection with Salmonella bacteria. Most infections are spread to people through consumption of contaminated food (usually meat, poultry, eggs, or milk).
Salmonella infections affect the intestines and cause vomiting, fever, and cramping, which usually clear up without medical treatment.
You can help prevent Salmonella infections by not serving any raw meat or eggs, and by not keeping reptiles as pets, particularly if you have very young children.
Hand washing is a powerful way to guard against Salmonella infections. So teach kids to wash their hands, particularly after trips to the bathroom and before handling food in any way.
Not everyone who ingests Salmonella bacteria will become ill. Children, especially infants, are most likely to get sick from it. About 50,000 cases of salmonellosis are reported in the United States each year and about a third of those are in kids 4 years old or younger.
There are many different types of Salmonella bacteria. The type responsible for most infections in humans is carried by chickens, cows, pigs, and reptiles (such as turtles, lizards, and iguanas). Another, rarer form — called Salmonella Typhi (S.Typhi) — causes typhoid fever. People usually get typhoid fever by drinking beverages or eating food that has been handled by someone who has typhoid fever or is a carrier of the illness. Most cases are in developing countries where clean water and other sanitation measures are hard to come by.
A Salmonella infection generally causes nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea (sometimes bloody), fever, and headache. Because many different kinds of illnesses can cause these symptoms, most doctors will take a stool sample to make an accurate diagnosis.
Symptoms of most infections start within 3 days of contamination and usually go away without medical treatment.
At first, typhoid fever caused by Salmonella bacteria looks similar to infections by non-typhoid Salmonella. But in the second week, the liver and spleen can become enlarged, and a distinctive "rose spotted" skin rash may appear. From there, the infection can cause other health problems, like meningitis and pneumonia.
People at risk for more serious complications from a Salmonella infection include those who:
In these higher-risk groups, most doctors will treat an infection with antibiotics to prevent it from spreading to other parts of the body.
Here are some ways to help prevent Salmonella bacteria from making your family sick:
If your child has salmonellosis and a healthy immune system, your doctor may let the infection pass without giving any medicines. But any time a child develops a fever, headache, or bloody diarrhea, call the doctor to rule out any other problems.
If your child is infected and has a fever, you may want to give acetaminophen to reduce his or her temperature and relieve cramping. As with any infection that causes diarrhea, it's important to give your child plenty of liquids to avoid dehydration.