Someone who is the victim of (or threatened by) violence, injury, or harm can develop a mental health problem called postraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD can happen in the first few weeks after an event, or even years later.
People with PTSD often re-experience their trauma in the form of "flashbacks," memories, nightmares, or scary thoughts, especially when they're exposed to events or objects that remind them of the trauma.
Psychologists or other counselors can help people with PTSD deal with hurtful thoughts and bad feelings and get back to a normal life.
PTSD is often associated with soldiers and others on the front lines of war, but anyone — even kids — can develop the condition after a traumatic event.
Traumas that might bring on PTSD include the unexpected or violent death of a family member or close friend, and serious harm or threat of death or injury to oneself or a loved one. Situations that can cause such trauma include:
In some cases, PTSD can happen after repeated exposure to these events. Survivor guilt (feelings of guilt for having survived an event in which friends or family members died) also might contribute to PTSD.
Not everyone who goes through a traumatic event will get PTSD. The chances of developing it and how severe it is vary based on things like personality, history of mental health issues, social support, family history, childhood experiences, current stress levels, and the nature of the traumatic event.
Studies show that people with PTSD often have atypical levels of key hormones involved in the stress response. For instance, research has shown that they have lower-than-normal cortisol levels and higher-than-normal epinephrine and norepinephrine levels — all of which play a big role in the body's "fight-or-flight" reaction to sudden stress. (It's known as "fight or flight" because that's exactly what the body is preparing itself to do — to either fight off the danger or run from it.)
Intrusive thoughts or memories of the event
Avoidance of any reminders of the event
Negative thinking or mood since the event happened
Persistent feelings of anxiety or physical reactions
Symptoms usually develop within the first month after the trauma, but they may not show up until months or even years have passed. These symptoms often continue for years after the trauma or, in some cases, may ease and return later in life if another event triggers memories of the trauma. (In fact, anniversaries of the event can often cause a flood of emotions and bad memories.)
PTSD also can come on as a sudden, short-term response (called acute stress disorder) to an event and can last many days or up to one month.
People with PTSD may not seek professional help because they think it's understandable to feel frightened after going through a traumatic event. Sometimes, people may not recognize the link between their symptoms and the trauma they experienced.
Teachers, doctors, school counselors, friends, and other family members who know a child or teen well can play an important role in recognizing PTSD symptoms.
Many people recover from a traumatic event after a period of adjustment. However, if your child or teen has experienced a traumatic event and has symptoms of PTSD for more than a month, get help from an expert.
Therapy can help address symptoms of avoidance, intrusive and negative thoughts, and a depressed or negative mood. A therapist will work with your family to help you and your child or teen adjust to what happened and get back to living life.
Mental health professionals who can help include:
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is very effective for people who develop PTSD. This type of therapy teaches ways to replace negative, unhelpful thoughts and feelings with more positive thinking. Behavioral strategies can be used at a child's own pace to help desensitize the child to the traumatic parts of what happened so he or she doesn't feel so afraid of them.
In some cases, medicine might be used to treat serious symptoms of depression and anxiety. This can help those with PTSD cope with school and other daily activities while being treated. Medicine often is used only until someone feels better, then therapy can help get the person back on track.
Finally, group therapy or support groups are often helpful because they let kids and teens know that they're not alone. Groups also provide a safe atmosphere in which to share feelings. Ask your child's therapist for specific referrals or suggestions for a group.
First and foremost, your child needs your support and understanding. Sometimes other family members like parents and siblings will need support, too. While family and friends can play a key role in helping someone recover, it's usually necessary to seek help from a trained therapist.
Here are some other things parents can do to support kids with PTSD:
Also, take care of yourself. Helping your child or teen cope with PTSD can be very challenging and may require a lot of patience and support. Time does heal, and getting good support for your family can help everyone move forward.